Wednesday, December 31, 2008

S. China province tightens poultry market inspection after bird flucase

S. China province tightens poultry market inspection after bird flucase 2009-01-01 00:34:09 Print

GUANGZHOU, Dec. 31 (Xinhua) -- Agricultural authorities in south China's Guangdong Province tightened inspection over trading markets for domestic poultry after an 82-day-old baby girl was diagnosed in Hong Kong with bird flu.

No further infections were detected in the province, the provincial agricultural department announced on Wednesday.

The girl, surnamed Chen, was born in Hong Kong. She had been living in Xiabaishi Village, Nanshan District of Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, with her grandmother while her parents were working in Hong Kong.

The baby fell ill last Monday and was diagnosed as having the H9N2 bird flu strain on Tuesday in a Hong Kong hospital.

Experts from Shenzhen city's health bureau and disease control center went to the village to investigate. They collected blood samples from the baby's grandmother and eight staff members in a local hospital who had contact with the baby. No virus was detected in those samples.

Experts also investigated a restaurant near the patient's home that kept live chickens. No virus was found in blood samples from four staff members of the restaurant.

The disease control center has sterilized the area around the baby's home and the hospital where she sought treatment.

The provincial agricultural department instructed its Shenzhen bureau to step up efforts to prevent and control the pathogenic avian flu in a bid to stem an outbreak of the disease in the city.

All poultry in Shenzhen have been vaccinated.

The provincial agricultural department sent staff to inspect markets together with staff from the Guangzhou city bureau.

It also sent five extra teams to other areas of the province to inspect bird flu prevention and control measures. There have been no reports of a bird flu outbreak.

Experts said the H9N2 bird flu strain is less pathogenic than the H5N1 strain.

Guangdong Province, approved an emergency investigation poultry market not found bird flu in poultry


新华网广州12月31日电(记者徐清扬)一名居住在深圳的香港女婴,12月30日在香港被证实感染H9N2禽流感。 Xinhua Canton December 31 (Xinhua徐清扬) who lives in Shenzhen, Hong Kong baby girl, December 30 in Hong Kong was confirmed to have contracted H9N2 avian influenza. 急排查,未发现禽类禽流感疫情。 Guangdong Province, the agricultural sector immediately including Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, including poultry market approved emergency investigation and found no bird flu in poultry.

After the incident, the Agriculture Department of Guangdong Province, Shenzhen, immediately instructed the agriculture bureau, called for further strengthening the highly pathogenic avian influenza prevention and control, do a good job related work to prevent bird flu occurred in poultry. 12月30日,广东省农业厅和广州市农业局组织对广州市部分家禽批发市场等流通场所开展禽类和禽类产品的专项检查,确保各项检疫监督措施落实到位。 December 30, the Agriculture Department of Guangdong Province and Guangzhou City Agricultural Bureau of poultry wholesale market in Guangzhou and other places to carry out the flow of poultry and poultry products, special inspections to ensure that the supervision and quarantine measures in place.

深圳市展开紧急行动,对全市开展禽流感疫情排查,加强监测预警,防患于未然。 Shenzhen City emergency action against the city to carry out bird flu investigation, strengthening monitoring and early-warning and take preventive measures. 目前深圳市禽类禽流感平均免疫率超过100%。 At present, avian influenza in poultry in Shenzhen average immunization rate of over 100%. 至12月31日,广东省农业厅还没有接到深圳市发生禽类禽流感的报告。 To December 31, the Guangdong Provincial Agriculture Department has not received the Shenzhen City of bird flu occurred in poultry reported.

此外,广东省农业厅已先后派出5个飞行检查组突击检查各地防控工作开展情况,抽查结果表明,广东省禽流感抗体合格率在80%以上,高于国家规定70%的标准,家禽处于有效免疫保护之中,全省没有接到发生禽流感疫情的报告。 In addition, the Agriculture Department of Guangdong Province has dispatched five inspection teams flying spot checks around the prevention and control work, the inspection results show that Guangdong Province, the passing rate of avian influenza antibodies in more than 80%, higher than the national requirements of the standard 70 percent, poultry at effective immune protection, the province did not receive any outbreak of avian flu reports. 广东省同时要求全省各地强化监测,提高预警预报水平,加大禽流感强制免疫力度,切实保证免疫效果。 Guangdong Province, across the province also asked to strengthen monitoring, improve the level of early warning forecast to increase bird flu compulsory vaccination efforts, and ensure the immune effect.

01/01/2009, on Thursday in the morning 08:24

Important news
The port hears the abstract

Caption: Enters the Tuen Mun Hospital Department of pediatrics isolation ward the medical care personnel put on protect the clothes

H9N2 fears the large-scale eruption

01/01/2009, on Thursday in the morning 08:10

The port hears the abstract

Caption: In the Tuen Mun Hospital, the female infant moves in the isolation ward wrong side of the door has the security officer to guard.

And shuttled back and forth seek medical help once contacted the over hundred people

[Daily Sun special news]
Infects the H9N2 bird flu's two month big female infant is taken bad the period, successively arrives at the Hong Kong Tuen Mun Hospital and the Shenzhen three hospitals treats, least 129 person and the female infant contacts, the virus possibly widely spreads in Shenzhen. Although had not discovered that other people receive infect, but health protection center inspector general Zeng Haohui does not remove H9N2 to have the large-scale eruption risk, will strengthen with inland prevention department cooperation.
Once with the female infant 15 sick children who had a sexual intercourse in the Tuen Mun Hospital Ordinary Department of pediatrics hospital ward, still five people stayed in hospital, the hospital has arranged them to accept the treatment and the medical inspection in the independent room, other contacts have not examined the virus, also did not have symptom.
Zeng Haohui believed that cannot underestimate H9N2 the dissemination risk, will also not remove the virus to erupt greatly, pays attention to this virus between the person and person's dissemination strength whether to enhance, as well as dissemination pattern whether or not change. He indicated that will strengthen two place cooperations, if will have is unusual erupts, may send the expert to Guangdong Province understanding virus dissemination situation.

Worries the virus to teach other people the frequency to increase

The Hong Kong University infection and infectious disease center inspector general He Bailiang believed that the female infant family member does not have symptom, the medical care personnel and the contact is infected the opportunity to be very low, must penetrate the viral gene arrangement first, whether discovers the viral variety, if were still the birds type, the large-scale eruption's opportunity is not high.
But he indicated that the human exposure H9 virus case from 99 years to 7 years, presents one time every three years; But 7 year two year appearance, worried continuously the virus teaches other people the frequency to increase, suggested the authority by the fast test substitution virus cultivation, diagnoses the patient early whether to receive infects.

Uganda on alert as Ebola fever breaks out in DRC

Uganda on alert as Ebola fever breaks out in DRC
Kakaire Kirunda
The Health Ministry has communicated to immigration staff at Uganda’s western border points to monitor people coming from the central parts of the Democratic Republic of Congo where an outbreak of the dreaded Ebola hemorrhagic fever has occured.
The Director General of Health Services, Dr Sam Zaramba, yesterday said; “We have asked immigration officials to immediately contact our medical staff in the vicinity in case of any suspicion.”
However, with some people not so keen on disclosing their exact areas of origin for fear of being inconvenienced and perhaps quarantined, it remains a challenge how the immigration staff will handle the situation.
DR Congo’s Ministry of Health declared on December 25 that there was an outbreak of the Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Mweka District, Kasai Occidental province. And as of December 26, the World Health Organisation (WHO) was aware of 34 suspected cases including nine deaths.
However, the aid agency Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF), which is taking care of the affected, has since updated the number of fatalities to 11.
Reports indicate that there is fear and confusion among local civilians and medics as rumours circulate of suspected cases or deaths from the virulent disease.
This deadly viral condition can cause its victims to bleed to death from all their bodily orifices.
Late last year, Uganda suffered an Ebola outbreak in the western district of Bundibugyo which claimed 37 lives out of the 148 who caught the disease. And since this outbreak that was officially declared over on February 20, Dr Zaramba said the Health Ministry has since been on the alert for any eventualities.
Dr Zaramba said Uganda is yet to issue any alerts or tight border controls “because the WHO has not prompted us and there are minimal chances that the epidemic will reach here because the outbreak is far away from the borders and international efforts are underway to contain it there.”
The WHO says in a statement that it is unaware of any reports signalling the international spread of disease and advises against the application of any travel or trade restrictions upon the DR Congo.

Ebola May Have Killed 12 People, Spread in Congo, MSF Says

By Jason Gale
Dec. 31 (Bloomberg) -- Ebola hemorrhagic fever, one of the most feared infectious diseases, may have killed 12 people and infected at least 26 others, in an area of the Democratic Republic of Congo where a deadly outbreak occurred 15 months ago, a medical aid organization said.
Ebola infections may be occurring in ``new pockets'' in the Mweka district of Western Kasai Province, said Medecins Sans Frontieres, or Doctors Without Borders. The current outbreak claimed its first life on Nov. 27, the Geneva-based group said in an e-mailed statement today.
``Other diseases including malaria and shigellosis, which can also have similar flu-like symptoms to Ebola in its first stages, have been confirmed in the area,'' MSF said. ``Thus, confirmation is still pending from the laboratories to determine whether these new pockets are Ebola or not.''
A laboratory in Gabon confirmed the presence of the Ebola virus in two patient samples, the World Health Organization in Geneva said in a Dec. 26 statement. In addition, laboratory tests conducted in Kinshasa, also confirmed the presence of dysentery-causing shigella.
Ebola was first recognized in 1976 after an outbreak near the Ebola River in the Democratic Republic of Congo, formerly known as Zaire. Since then, about 1,850 cases and more than 1,200 deaths have been recorded, mostly in Africa, according to WHO. African strains of the animal-borne virus usually kill 50 percent to 90 percent of those infected through lethal bleeding and organ failure.
Previous Outbreak
Congo's previous outbreak, which occurred between September and November 2007, is reported to have infected 264 people, killing 187 of them, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta.
MSF sent a team of medical and non-medical staff to the area of the current outbreak last week and 16 people are ``working around the clock to contain this deadly epidemic,'' MSF said today.
Two people are being cared for in an isolation facility in Kaluamba, the worst-affected village in Mweka, it said. A second, 25-bed isolation center has been established in Kampungu, in northern Mweka, in case the outbreak spreads

FAO helps Nam Dinh control bird flu

20:42' 31/12/2008 (GMT+7)

VietNamNet Bridge – The UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) has selected the northern province of Nam Dinh to carry out a pilot project on collecting bird flu information through SMS, according to Ninh Van Hieu, head of the provincial Veterinary Sub-Department.

With this mobile phone service the project will help establish data on affected areas, the number of dead poultry and epidemic situation in the province.

It is also expected to facilitate the zoning off, control and prevention of the epidemic spread.

Under the project, a training course on using SMS in bird flu control was held for 45 heads of communal veterinary stations from Nam Truc and Nghia Hung districts, which are home to many poultry farms and slaughter-houses.

Nam Dinh has about 7.9 million poultry heads, including 5.8 million chickens. Over the past four years, bird flu occurred repeatedly in the province, adversely affecting the economy, production and people’s health.

So far, the province has reported two deaths caused by avian influenza A (H5N1).

Between May 17-June 5, 2007, 25 communes in six districts of Nam Dinh were discovered to have bird flu and over 31,000 poultry heads died or were culled.

The cut off Chain Bird Flu

Tuesday, 30 December 2008
SEPANJANG 2008, two diseases seize the attention of Central Java. Increased vigilance for the two diseases, the bird flu (Avian influenza / AI) and DBD.

Approach of the year, people are also still wary of the threat of bird flu. When calculated the number of suspect patients AI in 2008 not as much as in 2007. In 2008, as many as 8 bird flu patients and two patients died in RSUP treated as Kariadi from hospitals.

In 2007 there were 23 patients with 6 patients died, while 17 patients declared cured. Year 2008, the threat of bird flu began with dirawatnya DS, 15, resident of Medoho III, Kelurahan Siwalan, Gayamsari District, East Semarang. After intensive treatment in four days RSUP dr Kariadi, the victim declared dead and stated positive bird flu.

Immediately and coincided with the National Health Day (HKN) to 44 mid-November, the Department of Health announced the status of Semarang exceptional circumstances (KLB) flu burung.Sesuai provisions, KLB status of bird flu that can be applied to cases occur, considering there had never previously AI cases with the victims died.

Status is applied for two weeks or twice the incubation bird flu virus. The determination does not take long, Friday (21/11) KLB status revoked bird flu official with the evaluation and the results expressed aman.Kendati Therefore, the vigilance over the possibility of a bird flu infection attacks still be improved.

KLB status Pascapencabutan bird flu does not mean finished permasalahan.Seolah beruntun, the hospital continues to treat patients suspectAI. If be, there are interesting phenomena related to the tinggal.Tiga patients suspected of bird flu that carry JW, 50; Tours, 12; Jas and, 27, live in the same District Karangtengah, District Agriculture Demak.Dinas Regency Demak direct response to the events chicken sudden death in the area.

The action followed spraying conducted laboratory examination results of domestic poultry population stated positive bird flu. However, since the first cases of bird flu is found, not visible in the efforts to eradicate the source of. Chain of transmission has not dropped out in the new cases continue to appear until the handling seems to run slow.

In fact, the government tends to be oriented on the curative approach to share with tamiflu in the hospital rujukan.Obat produced within the country. In fact, the use of tamiflu uncontrollable thus can make the virus resistant. One that is highlighted lambannya should confirm a bird flu diagnosis.

Although the results of the examination may have set in the country through the National Laboratory of R & D Department of Health. Unfortunately, the certainty of a new bird flu diagnosis received at the hospital patients are allowed to return home or even died.

There is still the issue again, the low price of the compensation poultry owners are reluctant to submit to the sukarela.Pasalnya, poultry is still the mainstay of cattle most of the population.

For adult birds will be replaced Rp15.000, Rp7.500 of young birds, poultry and children of Rp2.500. When compared with the market price is very much different, the head of adult birds dibandrol Rp40.000.Sehingga needed awareness owners would like to submit a poultry have been infected when declared bird flu. (hendrati Hapsari)

Google Translation & dictionary:

Tuesday, 30 December 2008
SEPANJANG 2008, two diseases seize the attention of Central Java. Kewaspadaan improved for two diseases, the bird flu (Avian Influenza / AI) and DBD.

Approach of the year, people are also still wary of the threat of bird flu. When calculated the number of suspect patients AI in 2008 not as much as in 2007. In the 2008, as many as 8 bird flu patients and two patients died in RSUP treated as Kariadi from hospitals.

In 2007 there were 23 patients with 6 patients died, while 17 patients declared cured. Year 2008, the threat of bird flu began dirawatnya with DS, 15, resident of Medoho III, Kelurahan Siwalan, Gayamsari District, East Semarang. After intensive treatment in four days RSUP dr Kariadi, the victim declared dead and stated positive bird flu.

Immediately and coincided with the National Health Day (HKN) to 44 mid-November, the Department of Health announced the status of Semarang exceptional circumstances (KLB) flu burung. Suitable certainly, KLB status of bird flu that can be applied to cases occur, considering there had never previously AI cases with the victims died.

Status is applied for two weeks or twice the incubation bird flu virus. The determination does not take long, Friday (21/11) status KLB bird flu officially revoked the consideration and evaluation of the results declared safe. Although/in spite of this way, caution for possibility existed an attack infection bird flu constant increased.

KLB status Pascapencabutan bird flu does not mean finished troubles/problem. As though to be in succession, the hospital continues to treat patients suspect AI. In spite of this, if done carefully and accurately, there are interesting phenomena related dwelling. Three patients that suspected of bird flu namely JW, 50; Tur, 12, and Jas, 27, live in the same District Karangtengah, District Demak. Dinas Agriculture Demak regency direct response to the events chicken sudden death in the area.

The action followed spraying conducted laboratory examination results of domestic poultry population stated positive bird flu. However, since the first cases of bird flu is found, not yet seen attempts to be meaningful in to fight against/combat source transmission. Source of chain infection not yet cut off added uninterrupted appearing at the same time case new so that dealing seemingly being under way sluggish.

In fact, the government tends to be oriented approach with curative tamiflu share in the hospital rujukan.Obat was produced in the country. In fact, the use of tamiflu uncontrollable thus can make the virus resistant. One that is highlighted lambannya [slow/lazy] should confirm a bird flu diagnosis.

Although the results of the examination may have set in the country through the National Laboratory of R & D Department of Health. Unfortunately, the certainty of a new bird flu diagnosis received at the hospital patients are allowed to return home or even died.

There is still the issue again, the low price of the compensation poultry owners are reluctant to submit to the sukarela.Pasalnya, poultry is still the mainstay of cattle most of the population.

For adult birds will be replaced Rp15.000, Rp7.500 of young birds, poultry and children of Rp2.500. When compared with the market price is very much different, the head of adult birds dibandrol Rp40.000.Sehingga needed awareness owners would like to submit a poultry have been infected when declared bird flu. (hendrati Hapsari)

Drug-Resistant Flu Linked With Pneumonia, Norwegian Doctors Say

By Jason Gale
Dec. 31 (Bloomberg) -- A drug-resistant influenza strain that has spread globally this year needs further study to gauge its virulence, according to doctors in Norway who found the bug was linked with patients suffering more severe symptoms.

A form of the H1N1 seasonal flu virus that evades Roche Holding AG's Tamiflu appeared more likely to cause pneumonia and sinusitis than the H1N1 strain without the resistance-causing mutation, researchers from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health in Oslo and the U.K.'s Health Protection Agency said.

While ``not a statistically significant finding,'' results of the study, involving fewer than 300 patients, ``warrant further investigation,'' the authors said. The study was released online today ahead of publication in the February edition of Emerging Infectious Diseases by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Tamiflu-evading influenza has been reported in 50 countries on six continents since widespread resistance to the bestselling antiviral was first reported to the World Health Organization by Norway in January. Its emergence prompted doctors to consider other medicines, such as GlaxoSmithKline Plc's Relenza, to fight a disease the WHO estimates causes 250,000 to 500,000 deaths annually.

In the U.S., doctors prescribing anti-flu treatments should give their patients Relenza, an orally inhaled medicine, or a combination of Tamiflu and an older drug called rimantadine, the CDC said in a Dec. 19 statement. Basel, Geneva-based Roche had worldwide Tamiflu sales of $1.74 billion in 2007 and $2.1 billion in 2006.

Dominant Strain
Of the 65 H1N1 viruses tested in the U.S. since October, 99 percent were resistant to oseltamivir, and all were susceptible to Relenza, rimantadine and amantadine, a similar drug, the CDC said. H1N1 is the dominant flu strain currently circulating in the U.S. this winter.

Preliminary data indicate that Tamiflu-resistant H1N1 flu viruses don't cause different or more severe symptoms compared with Tamiflu-sensitive H1N1 viruses, the CDC said in its Dec. 19 health advisory. Flu typically causes fever, joint and muscle ache, cough, sore throat and runny nose.

Of patients infected with the mutant strain in the Norwegian study, 9.2 percent had pneumonia and 6.2 percent had sinusitis. That compares with a pneumonia risk of 2.9 percent and sinusitis risk of 3 percent in patients infected with a non- resistant H1N1 strain. Risk ratios weren't statistically significant after adjusting for age, gender, and predisposing disease, according to the study.

Pandemic Plans
The emergence of Tamiflu-resistance has raised concern that the medicine, stockpiled by governments worldwide, might become a less powerful weapon in the fight against the H5N1 avian strain and any global contagion it spawns because of the potential for bird flu and pandemic flu to exchange genes with drug-resistant seasonal flu.
``Resistance in a more virulent influenza virus can have serious public health implications because of fewer therapeutic and prophylactic options, which may result in more persons being affected by influenza and more severe illness and death in those who become infected,'' Siri H. Hauge and colleagues wrote. ``These findings should be taken into consideration when shaping future strategies for treating and preventing seasonal and pandemic influenza.''

The researchers found the resistant strain occurred in the absence of selective pressure caused by widespread Tamiflu usage. The pill is not available in Norway without a prescription and it is rarely prescribed there, they said.
``Our data indicate that the viruses carrying this resistance mutation are fully capable of persistence and spread in the absence of selective pressure,'' the authors wrote.
To contact the reporters on this story: Jason Gale in Singapore at
Last Updated: December 31, 2008 00:57 EST

Tuesday, December 30, 2008

Travellers screened for ebola at border

Tuesday, December 30 2008 at 20:25
People entering Kenya from the Great Lakes region through the border town of Malaba are being screened for ebola.

A public health officer, Mr Charles Magomere, said travellers from the Democratic Republic of Congo were being screened in order to know if the areas they were coming from had been affected by the disease.

“There is an ebola alert in the DRC and we are not taking any chances,” the officer said.

Speaking to the Nation in his office on Tuesday, Mr Magomere said no case of ebola had been found but posters have been put up at the Kenya Revenue Authority’s customs yard to sensitise people on how they can detect the symptoms of the disease and what actions they should take.

The veterinary officer in charge of disease surveillance at Malaba, Mr Kennedy Ndengu, has said that his office was also checking eggs, live birds, skins and hides being imported from neighbouring countries.

Mr Ndengu said they were guarding against the entrance of anthrax and bird flu into the country.

The recent trend of China's poultry

Joined: 2008-12-30 8:27:00 Source: China Poultry Diseases Network
Of Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shandong, Ningxia, and other 14 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions, more than 100 farmers conducted a survey of some new characteristics of poultry.

1, popular characteristics and pathological changes

The region covered by the survey, there are two different levels of disease were distributed to 180 ~ 300-day-old chicken main peak of the egg, the spread of faster, the course of 40 days about the serious decline in egg production, production can resume after rehabilitation to the original 90%, the mortality rate in the 5% ~ 30%.

Tracheal mucosal hyperemia, hemorrhage; subcutaneous, abdominal, fat Xinguantong bleeding points; Proventriculus unusual bleeding, common disease mainly concentrated in the reproductive system; follicle hyperemia, hemorrhage, deformation, or variability, following a breakdown in the formation of yolk peritonitis, intrafallopian jelly-like white cheese-like objects.

Monitoring the incidence of antibody levels before and after the chickens and found that just when the incidence of Newcastle disease or avian influenza H9 subtypes of low levels of antibodies, the majority of chickens in the protection of the value of antibody levels following antibody titers dispersion, dispersion in more than five. Condition at the time of the resumption of increased antibody titers 3 to 5 above, and higher than that produced by the immune antibody.

2, Analysis

From the popular features of clinical symptoms and pathological changes of analysis, the disease may have occurred as a "low pathogenic avian influenza subtype h9" or "atypical Newcastle." The reasons are as follows: a "low pathogenic avian influenza H9 subtypes" due to the neglect of the immune H9. Some farmers only H5 subtype of avian influenza-free, can not help but H9 subtypes that immunization of H5N1, it has been immune H9; or less immune H9 subtypes, only in laying before the immunization 1 or 2 times, while laying scared is no longer immune to the impact of production, resulting in antibody levels enough protection force.

Secondly, the countries of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) attaches great importance to and vigorously publicized, so that some farmers have a misconception that the immune H9 unimportant. In addition, some areas can not buy single-H9 avian flu vaccine, but also caused the disease occurred in one of the factors.

Newcastle disease caused by atypical reasons are: inadequate understanding, I do not know Newcastle protection needs of humoral immune + local immune.

Secondly, many fish farmers not to antibodies or antibodies to monitor the timely monitoring, immunization method shall not be treated, only drinking water, eye or intravenous immunoglobulin. Although the humoral immune better, but local mucosal antibodies is not high, that is, against Newcastle disease virus infection in the first line of defense is not solid.

In addition, the immune excessive immune time interval is too short causing immune paralysis.

Newcastle local immune best way is immune aerosol.

3, prevention and control measures

Immunization to produce uniform flocks effective antibody levels.

Bird flu prevention, to no H9 subtype of avian influenza vaccine or antibody While a relatively low level of immunization but emergency fill-free chickens. Reference immunization procedures: 2 ~ 4-week-old first-free; 8 to 10 weeks of age 2 free; 120 ~ 130-day-old three-free; egg after every 3 to 4 months once immune.

Prevention of disease, we must attach importance to the role of local mucosal antibodies, which is pathogenic to resist the invasion the first line of defense in anti-infection plays an important role. Thus the cycle of humoral antibody with the same close attention. Mucosal antibodies mainly rely on the live vaccine produced, mainly by humoral antibody produced inactivated vaccine, which in the chickens immunized two most important stage - rearing period and pre-laying, to do the combined effects of two vaccines. After entering the egg production period, in order to maintain a relatively high level of local mucosal antibodies, we must ensure that 2 to 3 months time Newcastle disease live vaccine immunization.

4, immunization method

Three weeks before the best use of intranasal, eye method; three weeks after the use of aerosol methods; the immune effect of poor drinking water, preferably not be adopted; if the problem can not be used because the equipment aerosol immunization methods, preferably intranasally, eye method replace the reference to immunization procedures are as follows:

The first free 1 ~ 3-day-old seedlings of living eye; Second-free 7 ~ 10-day-old seedlings of living eye; three free 17 ~ 21-day-old live MILLER + inactivated vaccine; four free 8 to 10 weeks of age living Miao (aerosol Law) ; five free 16 ~ 18-week-old live Miao + inactivated vaccine (aerosol Act); laying period of 2 to 3 months a live vaccine.

These two diseases, we must attach importance to antibody detection. Of chickens to Newcastle disease and avian influenza after immunization, antibody levels in vivo immunization as time gradually decreased to protect the value of the following. To the timely monitoring of the antibody level of chickens to determine the timing of immunization, the immune blood checks after the completion of timely rise in antibodies to confirm that the immune effect.

At the same time, experts recommend: before vaccination, and even drink Diamond Circle 3-5 days, which can effectively enhance the immune effect and reduce immune stress, while adding METALOR Kerry, can reduce the vaccine-induced respiratory disease.

Nanjing bird flu cases confirmed "person to person" 2008-12-30 flour China Network

Social business December 29 hearing
Held yesterday in Guangzhou in 2008 working conference on emergency management, in particular to remind Academician Zhong Nanshan said, "We must be on guard against human-to-human influenza incident." Zhong Nanshan said that in December 2007 Nanjing bird flu cases confirmed his father's son to the avian flu incident. Cases of avian flu called Lu Wei's father, 52-year-old son in November 2007 was the disease, was hospitalized on the 27th, December 2 death, his father did not come into contact with poultry, 27 have been nursing his son more than 20 hours, the results also had bird flu, was to rescue them.

Zhong Nanshan in an interview also with particular emphasis on "person to person" means referring to the virus or avian flu virus has not yet become a human influenza virus, but it is through human transmission, so special attention should be paid with bird flu patients have had close contact with patients

Recombinomics: Additional H5N1 Spread In Kurigram Bangladesh


Additional H5N1 Spread In Kurigram Bangladesh
Recombinomics Commentary 17:43
December 30, 2008

The Bangladesh Ministry of Fish and Livestock has issued a December 27 report detailing another culling in Kurigram of 297 birds. This outbreak follows the outbreak at Balatari village last week (see updated map) and raises concerns of unreported outbreaks in adjacent areas, since Kurigram is small and shares borders with Cooch Bahar, Assam, and Meghalaya.

Assam has reported additional outbreaks in western areas, but there have been no reports near the Bangladesh border. Cooch Bahar and Meghalaya have issued alerts, but have not reported any outbreaks

Moreover, Bangladesh also reported an outbreak last week in Gailbandhi and West Bengal also confirmed H5N1 in the English Bazar block of Malda. However, there were also excessive poultry deaths in the adjacent blocks of Ratua I, Gajole, Manikchak, and Kaliachak II, although media reports indicate these dead birds were not tested.

H5N1 is likely to spread as birds migrate south and the temperature drops. Testing in India has been minimal, and low sensitivity tests are being used fro surveillance, while samples fro dead or dying poultry are not collected. All initial positives in Assam were from tissue samples and not from the low sensitivity serum tests.

Failures to control current outbreaks will lead to further H5N1 spread.
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China: Jimo 7 town to step up publicity to prevent and control highly pathogenic avian influenza

2008-12-30 14:09:12

7 town of Jimo would strengthen the publicity as a highly pathogenic avian influenza prevention and control work, one of the main measures to make participation in the prevention and control work of the Village cadres and animal epidemic prevention and technical personnel so that everyone can have accurate knowledge of prevention and control knowledge, the masses all known anti-bird flu can be controlled to ensure that the town of highly pathogenic avian influenza prevention and control work carried out smoothly. At present, the town 100% vaccination of poultry, disinfection of the realization of the day, no restocking, poultry manure to deal with the implementation of sound prevention and control work requirements.

The first is to strengthen training. The town in the implementation of the town of Bao village cadres, village cadres and private, including families at the same time, to participate in avian influenza prevention and control work of the Village cadres and staff carried out a basic knowledge of bird flu prevention and control training, training content, including quarantine, disinfection, farms closed, sound processing, as well as the fight against the epidemic, such as knowledge, so that cadres Village master the work of bird flu prevention and control procedures, objectives and requirements and practical methods, so that they work in specific guidance轻车熟路. At present, the town will be in training 2 times, training Village cadres and staff of 112 people.

Second, widely publicized. Village restaurant, including households in a timely manner cadres higher level of various publicity wallcharts, notices and the town government to produce the "bird flu fight against the implementation plan", "highly pathogenic avian influenza prevention and control knowledge Q & A", "highly pathogenic avian influenza prevention and control work standards "and other related materials, more than 1,600 copies sent to each village, farms and fish farmers. Make full use of radio propaganda village bird flu prevention and control knowledge, the town people of knowledge about the prevention and control of bird flu has reached 100%. (7 moving Jimo Station Supervisor: Liu Gang)

Production enough bird flu vaccine once the country's chicken consumption

2008-12-30 14:59:54

"This will be Asia's largest animal vaccine production base, where avian influenza vaccine production for the nine billion feathers were enough of a national consumption of chicken and other vaccine production capacity to achieve the supply of one-third of the country," Jiang Min Pointing proudly hanging on the wall Kazakhstan animal research new blueprint for the district told reporters.

Jiang Min, the Kazakhstan Institute beast new district is located in Harbin Development Zone cottage is the national animal epidemic prevention system of the Ministry of Agriculture an important part of building. Since the September 2006 start building since has been the provincial government in terms of policy, capital, land and approval of the full support and so on. The new district by the knowledge innovation base, technological innovation bases and supporting facilities in the composition of public parks. Among them, technological innovation base veterinary biological products mainly include high-tech industrialization demonstration base, national bird flu vaccine antigen bank, the National Seed Center experimental poultry in three parts, is currently the largest in line with the modernization of the Ministry of Agriculture GMP standard veterinary biologics production, testing base. Biological Products for Animal Uses of high-tech industrialization demonstration base by the National Development and Reform Commission approved the establishment, mainly the production of bird flu, blue ear pig disease, swine fever, swine gastroenteritis and other animal vaccines and clinical diagnostic reagents. National Avian Influenza vaccine antigen bank approved by the Ministry of Agriculture project, is currently the only bird flu vaccine for the national emergency reserves of antigen-specific library, the pool can be achieved antigen vaccine dynamic reserves semi-finished products to ensure that at any time to meet the poultry in China and the surrounding areas emergency control of influenza epidemic.

“哈兽研所自开展学习实践科学发展观活动以来,从领导班子到普通科技工作者都形成了一个共识,那就是:哈兽研的辉煌历史已经成为过去,要想实现国家和省委、 Kazakh government for animal research to determine the world-class, domestic leading development goals, we must further emancipate the mind, and make efforts to resolve the impact and constraints of the Institute to highlight the issue of the scientific development to determine the scientific development of new ideas and new measures taken to achieve new breakthroughs . This is not a negative Kazakhstan animal research achievements and historical achievements, but to stand on a higher starting point to achieve better and faster development. "Jiang said the people.

To this end, in carrying out the study and practice the scientific concept of development the beginning of the second phase, Kazakhstan animal research in the first phase of 11 seminars have been convened to hear the views of a broad basis, but also for the convening of the four seminars to hear the views and will be combing through these issues and established the Institute for future scientific development, new ideas, new initiatives, adherence to the "simultaneous study and reform."

First, in accordance with the non-profit research institutions and vico company positioning and development goals, to further promote the system and mechanism innovation, the formation is conducive to scientific development, promote comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable development of institutional mechanisms to achieve for the biotechnology industry Longjiang to provide technical support the objectives of the model industry;

The second is to effectively change the rules and regulations clearly lagged behind the rapid development of the needs of the Institute of the status quo, perfect in line with the research institutes and companies vico future scientific development in their respective rules and regulations, making it the cause of scientific development to promote the protection of the most favorable;

Third, persist in giving priority to efficiency with due consideration to fairness principle to scientific and reasonable, feasible assessment based evaluation system, and have set up scientific and reasonable remuneration system, fully mobilize the enthusiasm of workers and creativity to the cause of the Institute lead the development of trade unions to achieve common prosperity;

The fourth is to continue in the excellent top-notch research talent and to understand the operation will be managed by the cultivation of talents, the introduction of incentives, such as appointment and areas, solid and effective personnel to carry out construction work to high-quality people to promote the cause of the Institute of high-quality development.

Hong Kong today to resume the supply of live poultry to control bird flu have paid off

[ gloves?]

Hong Kong bird flu outbreak investigation team to investigate farm

HONG KONG December 30 (Xinhua Wu Xinwei) Hong Kong from today to resume the sale of live chickens in retail markets, which is from Hong Kong on the 9th of this month found that chickens infected with avian flu, the Hong Kong public for the first time after 21 days can once again buy live chickens.

Moderator: to resume the sale of live chickens in retail markets, is not it mean that the Hong Kong bird flu has been brought under control completely?
Xin-Wei Wu: It can be said is basically under control, because in the outbreak of avian flu in Hong Kong after a number of natural vitality of this thing has a number of inspections has been carried out HIV tests, all results are presented to reflect the negative, so therefore decided that, in 21 -day lock-up period to restore the supply of live chickens.
Moderator: Well, the chicken prices after the lifting of the ban and earlier than the change?

Xin-Wei Wu: It is pro-shelf retail price in nearly every 4 to 32 money, is quite different from the previous.
Moderator: Hong Kong's relevant departments have taken measures to ensure the future of live poultry markets in Hong Kong security?

Xin-Wei Wu: Let me start with the resumption of live chickens before the sale, then the Government has taken many measures, such as Cheung Sha Wan Temporary Wholesale Market and a number of retail stores, is again a big cleansing and disinfection or so poultry wholesale markets and opening up areas, each days to complete the cleansing and disinfection. In the past two weeks as wholesalers and employee health and safety held talks, in this clip, this will be the basis for measures to be strengthened.

Chinese infant contracts bird flu [H9N2]

Published: Tuesday, December 30, 2008

HONG KONG - A Hong Kong-born infant has contracted a mild form of bird flu, the fifth case of its type in the territory, health authorities said Tuesday.

The two-month-old girl, who lives with her parents in China's southern city of Shenzhen, was diagnosed with the influenza A (H9N2) infection after she developed vomiting, a cough, and a runny nose, according to the city's Centre for Health Protection.

Thomas Tsang, controller of the centre, said the virus was detected in a specimen taken from the girl's respiratory system when she was admitted to Hong Kong's Tuen Mun Hospital on Dec. 22.

She was discharged on Dec. 23, but re-admitted to the hospital six days later because of a high white blood cell count, which may be suggestive of an underlying haematological condition, the centre said.

The girl is staying in the hospital for further investigation.

"Further genetic sequencing is being conducted to determine if the virus is completely of avian origin," Tsang said.

"As the girl was staying in Shenzhen for the whole incubation period, we have informed the Guangdong health department of this case and they will carry out necessary investigation and follow up actions."

The department will inform the World Health Organization and health authorities in Macao of the findings, he said.

H9N2 is an avian flu virus that mainly affects ducks and chickens, the centre said. Infection in humans is rare, and presents as a mild disease.

Three girls and a boy were confirmed to have been infected with H9N2 in 1999, 2003 and 2007 respectively.

On Dec. 11, Hong Kong's government confirmed that the deadly H5N1 virus had been found at a poultry farm near the city's border with China, the first outbreak of the virus on a local farm in nearly six years. More than 90,000 chickens were culled to prevent the spread of the flu.

Hong Kong was the scene of the world's first reported major H5N1 bird flu outbreak among humans in 1997, when six people died.

New York Times: Avian Influenza

[ I feel like the subject of Avian Influenza is more adequately represented...]
Tuesday, December 30, 2008

Avian influenza is flu infection in birds. The disease is of concern to humans, who have no immunity against it. The virus that causes this infection in birds can mutate (change) to easily infect humans. Such mutation can start a deadly worldwide epidemic.


Historically, avian influenza viruses infected pigs and mixed with pig influenza viruses. The viruses exchanged genetic information, which led to the formation of a new virus. This new virus could then infect humans and easily spread from person to person. Previous flu pandemics (worldwide epidemics) have started this way.

The first avian influenza virus to infect humans directly occurred in Hong Kong in 1997, during an avian flu epidemic on the island. This outbreak was linked to chickens and classified as avian influenza A (H5N1).

Since the Hong Kong outbreak, the bird flu virus has spread across Asia, and in October 2005 was discovered in poultry in Turkey and Romania. So far, hundreds of people have been infected by H5N1. Many people have died.

The wider the area over which the avian flu virus spreads, the greater the chances of a worldwide outbreak. There is tremendous concern that H5N1 poses an enormous pandemic threat.

Farmers and other people working with poultry, as well as travelers visiting affected countries, have a higher risk for getting the bird flu. Handling an infected bird can cause infection. People who eat raw or undercooked poultry meat are also at an increased risk for avian influenza. Highly infective avian flu viruses, such as H5N1, have been shown to survive in the environment for long periods of time, and infection may be spread simply by touching contaminated surfaces. Birds who recover from the flu can continue to shed the virus in their feces and saliva for as long as 10 days.

Health care workers and household contacts of patients with avian influenza may also be at an increased risk of the bird flu.


Symptoms of avian flu infection in humans depend on the particular strain of virus. In case of the H5N1 virus, infection in humans causes more classic flu-like symptoms, which might include:

Signs and Tests

If you think you have been exposed to avian influenza, call your health care provider before your visit. This will give the staff a chance to take proper precautions that will protect them and other patients.

In February 2006, the U.S. Food & Drug Administration approved a new, faster test for diagnosing strains of bird flu in people suspected of having the virus. The test is called the Influenza A/H5 (Asian lineage) Virus Real-time RT-PCR Primer and Probe Set. The test gives preliminary results within 4 hours. Older tests required 2 to 3 days.

Your doctor might also perform the following tests:

Other tests may be done to look at the functions of your heart, kidneys, and liver.


Different types of avian flu virus may cause different symptoms. Therefore, treatment may vary.

In general, treatment with the antiviral medication oseltamivir (Tamiflu) or zanamivir (Relenza) may make the disease less severe -- if you start taking the medicine within 48 hours after your symptoms start.

Oseltamivir may also be prescribed for persons who live in the same house as those diagnosed with avian flu.

The virus that causes human avian flu appears to be resistant to the antiviral medicines amantadine and rimantadine. Therefore these medications cannot be used if an H5N1 outbreak occurs.

People with severe infection may need to be placed on a breathing machine. Experts recommend that persons diagnosed with avian flu be put in isolation.

Doctors recommend that people get an influenza (flu) shot to reduce the chance of an avian flu virus mixing with a human flu virus, which would create a new virus that may easily spread.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved a vaccine to protect humans from the avian flu. Experts say the vaccine could be used if the current H5N1 virus starts spreading between people.

Expectations (prognosis)

Prognosis depends on the severity of infection and the type of avian influenza virus that caused it. The current death rate for patients with confirmed H5N1 infection is more than 50%. The H7N7 avian flu outbreak in the Netherlands resulted in 89 confirmed human cases but only one death. An avian flu virus designates H9N2 infected 3 children in Asia; all three recovered.


Pneumonia and acute respiratory distress are seen with H5N1 infections. Infection with this virus may also lead to sepsis and organ failure.

Calling Your Health Care Provider

Call your health care provider if you develop flu-like symptoms within 10 days of handling infected birds or traveling to an area with a known avian flu outbreak.


Travelers should avoid visits to live-bird markets in areas with an avian flu outbreak. People who work with birds who might be infected should use protective clothing and special breathing masks. Avoiding undercooked or uncooked meat reduces the risk of exposure to avian flu and other food borne diseases.


US Food and Drug Administration. FDA Approves First U.S. Vaccine for Humans Against the Avian Influenza Virus H5N1. Rockville, MD: National Press Office; April 17, 2007. Release P07-68

US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. New Laboratory Assay for Diagnostic Testing of Avian Influenza A/H5 (Asian Lineage). MMWR. February 3, 2006/55(Early Release);1.

World Health Organization. Cumulative number of confirmed human cases of avian influenza A/(H5N1) reported to WHO. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2006.

Beigel JH, Farrar J, Han AM, et al. Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Infection in Humans. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:1374-85.

More Information on This Topic


Use of Protective Gear in Bird Flu Outbreak Response

Dec 29, 2008 - 7:20:10 PM
By Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Use of Protective Gear in Bird Flu Outbreak Response

Listen to the podcast Listen To This Podcast...


CDC's Dr. Oliver Morgan discusses how the use of masks and other protective gear impacted whether workers dealing with an outbreak of bird flu in England became sick. The paper is published in the January 2009 issue of CDC’s journal, Emerging Infectious Diseases. (Created: 12/29/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Date Released: 12/29/2008

Higher Demand For Rubber Gloves

December 30, 2008 15:29 PM

KUALA LUMPUR, Dec 30 (Bernama) -- Malaysian glove manufacturers are set to witness a higher demand for products, in riding on an increasing awareness of cleanliness and hygiene worldwide, despite the economic slowdown.

Currently, Malaysian rubber glove manufacturing companies command between 55 percent to 65 percent of the world market, OSK Research said in a research note here Tuesday.

"Given the stringent quality standards, there is strong world demand for their products," it added.

OSK Research also pointed out that the emergence of new diseases such as the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), the bird flu and bio-terrorism, heightened awareness of hygiene in developing countries and the usage of gloves being made mandatory in developed nations.

On the cost issue, OSK Research said companies had stressed on the need to pass on the increased cost of production of either latex or natural gas to customers, especially for the medical grade gloves.

The research house said the glove manufacturing companies were safe as long as there was no huge fluctuations in cost.

"As rubber gloves constitute less than one percent of the total cost of healthcare centres, any increase in the selling price is deemed too insignificant to affect overall demand," it explained.

OSK Research said companies like Hartalega Holdings Bhd and Kossan Rubber Industries Bhd have begun to focus on nitrile gloves due to its low protein content compared to natural latex gloves.

The research house also said that in the case of Kossan, its premium gloves were widely used by developed nations and hence,was the most inelastic to an economic slowdown.

It said the construction of Kossan's new 11 double-former lines was progressing well for commercial production in the fourth quarter of this year.

"With the expansion plan, annual production capacity will increase by two billion pieces to a total of 12 billion pieces by the year end or in early 2009," OSK Research said.

The research house also maintained Kossan's financial year 2008 and 2009 earnings forecast at RM60.6 million and RM75.9 million respectively.


Baby in China has bird flu [H9]

Dec 30, 2008
Bird flu has killed at least 247 people worldwide since 2003, according to the World Health Organisation. -- PHOTO: AP

HONG KONG - A 2-MONTH-OLD Hong Kong-born infant who lives in China has contracted a mild strain of bird flu, a health official said on Tuesday.

The baby girl, who contracted the H9 strain of avian influenza, is currently isolated at a local hospital and is in stable condition, Thomas Tsang, controller of Hong Kong's Centre for Health Protection, told a news conference.

The baby lives with her family in the southern Chinese city of Shenzhen but recently visited a hospital in Hong Kong after showing symptoms, Mr Tsang said.

He said health officials in the southern Chinese Guangdong province are trying to determine how she caught the virus.

Mr Tsang said Hong Kong has recorded four previous human cases of H9 infections. All patients have fully recovered.

The case came weeks after three dead chickens tested positive for bird flu in Hong Kong, prompting the city to suspend poultry imports for 21 days and begin slaughtering 80,000 birds.

Hong Kong's biggest bird flu outbreak was in 1997, when the more virulent H5N1 strain jumped to humans and killed six people.

Bird flu has killed at least 247 people worldwide since 2003, according to the World Health Organisation. -- AP

Vietnam: Thai Nguyen appear HPAI

Tuesday, 30/12/2008, 02:04 (GMT +7)
(SGGP) .- The 29-12, Department of Animal Health (Ministry of Agriculture-Rural Development) affirmed, HPAI has to be detected in a household in Luong Son, suburban Thai Nguyen, Thai Nguyen province. According Center Veterinary Diagnostic Center, has 148 thousand children around the new 1.5-month-old samples are subject positive patients with H5N1 virus.

Agencies immediately destroys all of thousand infected. At present, the smuggling of poultry in the area of Lang Son lead Thai Nguyen, Bac Ninh, Bac Giang is ... hot. It could be illegal poultry is one of the sources of infection outbreaks.

Monday, December 29, 2008

Safety, Humoral and Cell Mediated Immune Responses to Two Formulations of an Inactivated, Split-Virion Influenza A/H5N1 Vaccine in Children


Highly pathogenic influenza A/H5N1 has caused outbreaks in wild birds and poultry in Asia, Africa and Europe. It has also infected people, especially children, causing severe illness and death. Although the virus shows limited ability to transmit between humans, A/H5N1 represents a potential source of the next influenza pandemic. This study assesses the safety and immunogenicity of aluminium hydroxide adjuvanted (Al) and non adjuvanted influenza A/Vietnam/1194/2004 NIBRG-14 (H5N1) vaccine in children.
Methods and Findings

In a Phase II, open, randomised, multicentre trial 180 children aged 6 months to 17 years received two injections, 21 days apart, of vaccine containing either: 30 µg haemagglutinin (HA) with adjuvant (30 µg+Al) or 7.5 µg HA without adjuvant. An additional 60 children aged 6–35 months received two “half dose” injections (ie 15 µg+Al or 3.8 µg). Safety was followed for 21 days after vaccination. Antibody responses were assessed 21 days after each injection and cellular immune responses were explored. Vaccination appeared well tolerated in all age groups. The 30 µg+Al formulation was more immunogenic than 7.5 µg in all age groups: in these two groups 79% and 46% had haemagglutinination inhibition antibody titres ≥32 (1/dil). Among 6–35 month-olds, the full doses were more immunogenic than their half dose equivalents. Vaccination induced a predominantly Th2 response against H5 HA.

This influenza A(H5N1) vaccine was well tolerated and immunogenic in children and infants, with Al adjuvant providing a clear immunogenic advantage. These results demonstrate that an H5N1 Al-adjuvanted vaccine, previously shown to be immunogenic and safe in adults, can also be used in children, the group most at risk for pandemic influenza.

[Click on Title for full document]

CIDRAP: Ebola strikes Congo again

Lisa Schnirring Staff Writer

Dec 29, 2008 (CIDRAP News) – The World Health Organization (WHO) recently confirmed an outbreak of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) that involves 34 suspected cases, with at least 9 deaths.

Based on reports from the DRC's health ministry, the WHO said in a Dec 26 statement that the outbreak was detected in Mweka district in Kasai Occidental (West Kasai) province and that a laboratory in Franceville, Gabon, confirmed the Ebola virus in samples from two of the patients. The WHO said a lab in Kinshasa also confirmed Shigella (bacterial) infections, but the agency did not say how many.

A spokesman from the medical aid group Medicins sans Frontieres (MSF, or Doctors Without Borders) said that two more people have died of suspected Ebola infections, raising the outbreak fatality total to 11, according to a report today from Agence France-Presse.

The DRC's last Ebola outbreak, in September 2007, also hit West Kasai province and also featured Shigella infections in some patients, according to previous reports. Seventeen cases and six deaths were reported in that outbreak.

From the number of suspected cases and deaths in the ongoing outbreak, the WHO said the case-fatality rate is 26%. The agency said that additional samples have been sent to the lab in Kinshasa. The statement did not say which Ebola subtype had sickened people in the outbreak.

The Ebola virus is highly contagious and causes a high fatality rate, ranging from about 50% to 90%. Initial symptoms include fever, headache, joint and muscle aches, sore throat, and weakness, followed by diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach pain, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Hallmarks of Ebola infection include internal and external bleeding, and there is no vaccine or specific treatment for the disease.

In late 2007, researchers investigating an Ebola outbreak in Uganda, the DRC's neighbor to the east, identified a new Ebola subtype: Bundibugyo. Initial findings suggested that the case-fatality rate for Ebola Bundibugyo was about 36%, lower than that of the Zaire (80% to 90%) or Sudan (50% to 55%) subtypes, according to previous reports.

WHO experts are assisting the DRC's health ministry with the outbreak investigation and response at ministry headquarters and in the field, the WHO said. The agency said it has sent additional staff and supplies to the area, and a team of national and international experts has been sent to help control the outbreak.

The WHO said it hasn't received any reports that suggest international spread of the disease, and it advised countries not to impose travel or trade restrictions on the DRC.

Meanwhile, MSF said in a Dec 25 report that suspected cases have been reported since Nov 27. The group said nine of its Ebola specialists from Kinshasa and Brussels are working in Western Kasai province. MSF said an isolation ward is being built in the village of Kampungu and that the group's doctors are treating suspected patients and identifying those who may have been in contact with people who had or have the virus.

In other developments, government officials in the Philippines recently asked the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), and the WHO to send experts to help investigate the detection of the Ebola Reston virus in pigs, according to a Dec 23 statement from the FAO.

In early December the FAO announced that researchers had discovered the Ebola virus for the first time in pigs while investigating outbreaks of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome (PRRS) at several Philippine swine producers. The Reston subtype can sicken monkeys, but it does not appear to clinically infect humans.

India: DMC destroys poultry products

DMC destroys poultry products
DMC staff destroying the seized eggs in a bid to prevent the spread of bird flu in the state.

DIMAPUR: The staff of Rate Control Branch under the Dimapur Municipal Council (DMC) today seized poultry eggs from traders in different locations under its jurisdiction for selling them despite the ban imposed by the district administration on the sale of poultry and its products.

The ban has been imposed in the wake of high alert sounded by the State Department of Veterinary & Animal Husbandry following the bird flu outbreak in Assam. Co-convener of Rate Control Branch, S Vihuto Yeptho, has cautioned all poultry traders within the jurisdiction of DMC not to sell poultry and its products in Dimapur till the ban is lifted. Anybody caught selling will be penalised as per the law, he warned.

The public is also requested to cooperate with the DMC and report such matters at phone no.: 03862-236815.

Bird Flu spreads to new areas in Assam

Guwahati : The Assam government has made it clear that the avian influenza has spread to new areas of the state. Sources in the Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Department said that the deadly bird flu virus was confirmed in about 15 more villages. The health authorities have been asked to cull nearly 70,000 birds in these areas.

Speaking on this, a veterinary department official said, “So far about 150 villages in eight Assam districts were hit by bird flu and Rapid Response Teams have already slaughtered about 510,000 chickens and ducks since November 27.” The latest report added that culling was on in the new areas including Manahkuchi of Hajo, Chayani Barduar block in Kamrup (Rural), Tihu-Barama of Baksa, Chachaligaon Burachowk in Nagaon, Rangamati and Aurpakmoniari Tiniali in Kamrup (Metro).

“We have so far identified 19 epicentres affected by bird flu in Assam. Culling operations in newly affected areas have already begun, while in some places the drive is almost complete,” added the official. The official said the source of the deadly virus was difficult to be ascertained as it was air borne. The Assam government has already banned sale and movement of poultry products from bird flu affected areas.

It may be here recalled that the deadly bird flu was first detected in Kamrup (Rural) district on the 27th of last month. Since than more than 500,000 poultry have been culled down by the state authorities in the state. Furthermore, the Union government has also established the outbreak of the disease among the poultry of Doloigaon Uzanpara village under Dhaligaon Development Block of Bongaigaon District.

Fewer Human Deaths From Virus Even as It Spreads Among Poultry

[All I can say about this article is...please refer to Dr. Niman's commentary posted here at the blog: Recombinomics: 5th Anniversary of H5Nl]

Published: December 29, 2008

With the arrival of winter, H5N1 avian flu is on the rise again in Asia and Egypt.

The outbreaks are part of an annual trend: cases peak between December and March each year in birds as well as humans.

Children have died from it recently in Indonesia and Egypt, and a Cambodian teenager tested positive but survived.

Only 30 human deaths have been confirmed by the World Health Organization this year. That is well below the 59 recorded last year and the peak of 79 recorded in 2006. All 30 deaths this year occurred in only four countries: Vietnam, China, Indonesia and Egypt. No large family clusters, like those found from 2005 to 2007, have been confirmed.

Indonesia may have had more flu deaths than it has admitted. Its health minister said in June that she “wanted to focus on positive steps by the government” and would not announce all confirmed deaths. There were several family clusters of fatal respiratory diseases this year, according to news reports, but all were officially attributed to other causes.

New poultry outbreaks have been found recently in Kandal province in Cambodia, Jiangsu province in eastern China, rural parts of Hong Kong, Bangladesh and West Bengal and Assam provinces in India.

Although there have been no human deaths in India, poultry outbreaks appear to be increasing rapidly. In other countries in this situation, human cases have usually followed.

India does not vaccinate poultry. China does, and mismatched vaccines may be to blame for new outbreaks, experts said.

Some vaccines were made from H5N2 virus strains, and their ability to protect against H5N1 may have faded.

Researchers unlock secrets of 1918 flu pandemic

Policemen in Seattle wearing masks made by the Red Cross, during the influenza Reuters – Policemen in Seattle wearing masks made by the Red Cross, during the influenza epidemic in a National …

WASHINGTON (Reuters) – Researchers have found out what made the 1918 flu pandemic so deadly -- a group of three genes that lets the virus invade the lungs and cause pneumonia.

They mixed samples of the 1918 influenza strain with modern seasonal flu viruses to find the three genes and said their study might help in the development of new flu drugs.

The discovery, published in Tuesday's issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, could also point to mutations that might turn ordinary flu into a dangerous pandemic strain.

Yoshihiro Kawaoka of the University of Wisconsin and colleagues at the Universities of Kobe and Tokyo in Japan used ferrets, which develop flu in ways very similar to humans.

Usually flu causes an upper respiratory infection affecting the nose and throat, as well as so-called systemic illness causing fever, muscle aches and weakness.

But some people become seriously ill and develop pneumonia. Sometimes bacteria cause the pneumonia and sometimes flu does it directly.

During pandemics, such as in 1918, a new and more dangerous flu strain emerges.

"The 1918 influenza pandemic was the most devastating outbreak of infectious disease in human history, accounting for about 50 million deaths worldwide," Kawaoka's team wrote.

It killed 2.5 percent of victims, compared to fewer than 1 percent during most annual flu epidemics. Autopsies showed many of the victims, often otherwise healthy young adults, died of severe pneumonia.

"We wanted to know why the 1918 flu caused severe pneumonia," Kawaoka said in a statement.

They painstakingly substituted single genes from the 1918 virus into modern flu viruses and, one after another, they acted like garden-variety flu, infecting only the upper respiratory tract.

But a complex of three genes helped to make the virus live and reproduce deep in the lungs.

The three genes -- called PA, PB1, and PB2 -- along with a 1918 version of the nucleoprotein or NP gene, made modern seasonal flu kill ferrets in much the same way as the original 1918 flu, Kawaoka's team found.

Most flu experts agree that a pandemic of influenza will almost certainly strike again. No one knows when or what strain it will be but one big suspect now is the H5N1 avian influenza virus.

H5N1 is circulating among poultry in Asia, Europe and parts of Africa. It rarely affects humans but has killed 247 of the 391 people infected since 2003.

A few mutations would make it into a pandemic strain that could kill millions globally within a few months.

Four licensed drugs can fight flu but the viruses regularly mutate into resistant forms -- just as bacteria evolve into forms that evade antibiotics.

(Reporting by Maggie Fox, editing by Will Dunham and John O'Callaghan)

Indonesia: Central Java: Corpse removed to the river Dozens dead chicken in Giriwoyo, residents fret

More on this situation. Map shows both Selogiri and Giriwoyo, about 30 miles apart (as the crow flies). Previously posted with map:

Sunday, December 28, 2008
Central Java: 156 positive bird flu Chicken sudden death

Edition: Tuesday, December 30 2008, hal.v
Corpse removed to the river
Dozens dead chicken in Giriwoyo, residents fret

Wonogiri (Espos) Dozens Sejati chicken in the Village, District Giriwoyo dead. Not to be definitive cause of death of poultry, but the local village that has not got the report about it.

"Since sepekan ago, a lot of dead chickens in our region, the number may be more than 50 chickens. We have reported this to the village, "said Wandi, Sejati of Hamlet, Village Sejati Espos when contacted on Monday (29/12).

Dituturkan Wandi, the death of tens of chicken in this suddenly make people worried, especially, a lot of dead chickens that carelessly discarded to the river and the grounds around the residence. He added, people have reported this problem to the local village head, but until now that he has not been there from the Office of zoological and Fisheries (Diswanperla) who came to monitor.

"The village head mengimbau to the residents so that the dead chicken carcass immediately burned. If a visit from the office, until this time there is no, "Wandi more emphatic.

This senada also expressed by other residents, Widodo. Widodo and his family is concerned enough that the number of dead chickens that carelessly discarded by residents. "Families do not have our poultry, but we are concerned with our health because a lot of dead chickens thrown in the river."

Separately, the Village Head Sejati, Daryoto, when dimintai confirmation on this claim did not know about the existence of the death of tens of chickens in the region. "I have not heard any chickens die suddenly in the village Sejati," he said quickly.

Meanwhile, after the death of hundreds of chickens in Hamlet Susukan, Village Pare, Selogiri due to avian influenza virus (AI), last week, the target of an agreement pengandangan birds to avoid the spread of bird flu virus in their region. "Sunday (28/12), two chickens that died. Residents and the village already negotiate. By agreement of residents, at the latest by 31 December, all poultry must be in Susukan dikandangkan. If not, will be destroyed by the residents, "said village head Pare, WD Brasto, yesterday.

As previously made, as many as 158 chickens belonging to 32 families in the Hamlet Susukan died due to H5N1 virus infection. When asked about the planned publication of regulations village (Perdes) about the bird flu such as the Village Jendi, Brasto not confess to that stage. Section, he also needs to consider the application of regulations in the field. "For now, we have not thought to make Perdes, because so many things to consider, including how to pengaplikasiannya community. Currently, we focus on the dissemination of prevention first, "he demolished. - By: ewy