Saturday, September 8, 2012

Vietnam: Hanoi People's Comm. Signed Implementation of power # 09/CD-UBND Prevention of H5N1, HFM & Dengue Fever


Hanoi: Campaign organization preventive sanitation in 9/2012
23:21:59 09/08/2012, Updated 25 minutes ago

Chairman of the Hanoi People's Committee has just signing power number 10/CD-UBND send the Director of the Department; heads of the departments to the city; Chairman of districts, towns on strengthening prevention Influenza A (H5N1), hand, foot and mouth disease, dengue fever.

According to the Power, chairman of the city People's Committee asked the Director of Health, Department of Information and Communications, the Department of Education and Training, the Department of Agriculture and Rural Development and Director, heads of departments, agencies and organizations City and Chairman of the district, the town continues to maintain and movement "patriotic Hygiene" by President Ho Chi Minh called to the village, cluster and each citizen; campaign organized hand-washing with soap, sanitation spidering toss, mosquito larvae in the region to live and work in 9/2012.

Department of Health - The Permanent Steering Hanoi disease prevention in collaboration with the relevant agencies of the Ministry of Health and other departments, agencies, organizations, people's committees of districts, towns and direct health system specific route planning, improved monitoring, early diagnosis and timely emergency care, active treatment, minimize the loss of lives and health of people ; prepared the drugs, medical supplies and equipment, essential chemicals, isolation areas for timely collection of patient capacity; isolation, zoning process thoroughly, not to spread. Proactive professional support, material for medical line attached to strengthen inspection and disease control in the area. Assigned units to monitor implementation of prevention in the districts and communes. Promptly report to the City People's Committee and the Ministry of Health fully the evolution of disease in the city.


Department of Education and Training in collaboration with the Department of Health, People's Committees of districts, towns and guidance to schools in the area held direct talks with parents about the method and how to recognize early signs of the disease, epidemic prevention initiative. Close coordination with the health sector in the management of student health, proactively notify the health unit when detecting cases for timely processing.


Department of Agriculture and Rural Development in close collaboration with the People's Committees of districts, towns, departments, agencies, organizations concerned to continue the implementation of the power of 09/CD-UBND dated 03/8/2012 of People city; well organized management, inspection and surveillance of the disease in poultry. Timely treatment thoroughly outbreak, prevent the transmission of influenza A (H5N1) from poultry to humans.

Vietnam: #H5N1 in Hoa Binh Province

Previously posted here, they issued a decision to report this outbreak, reported in this article below.  Judging from the location, I would say it is most likely 2.3.2.1 strain, but do not have confirmation.  Hoa Binh Province is the postmark in the map in Yellow.  Map can be found on the right side-bar in the 2.3.2.1 section,  entitled "Vietnam 2.3.2.1 Outbreak":


(HBDT) - On 7/9, PPC issued Decision No. 1220/QD-UBND on the publication of bird flu at two Hoa Son and Co Hoa (Liangshan) from the date of 07/09/2012.  PPC for the Department of Agriculture and Rural Development to direct the Department of Animal Health and the organizational units involved against avian influenza in accordance with current regulations of the State.

Report number 230/BC-CCTY of the Department of Animal Health, 3/9, Luong Son District Veterinary Station reports of mass poultry died of unknown causes at Hoa Son. On 4/9, Department of Animal Health has directly sent staff to check verify. Based on the symptoms of infected poultry, Department of Animal Health has taken seven from samples sent Central Veterinary Diagnostic Center for testing. Based on the answer sheet test results of 679TTCD/XN dated 09.06.2012 of the Central Veterinary Diagnostic Center concluded 3/3 pooled samples (geese, ducks, chickens) test positive for the virus H5N1 avian influenza. On the morning of 7/9, the inspection team of the Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, Department of Animal Health, the Regional Animal Health I, Luong Son district People's Committee went to check the actual situation at 2 Hoa Son and Co Hoa. By the time of inspection, Hoa Son has 740 sick birds and 448 dead birds in the areas of shipbuilding, Tram Bui, this spring. In the Grass Stream, Village, The Hoa have 400 birds died. The inspection team has the least: all the poultry in the village of Hoa Son and Co would have bird flu.

Vietnam: Discovered a new bird flu outbreak packaging village of Hoa Son (Luong Son)

[This is a new Province that reports H5N1 in Poultry. I'll add it to my map, which you can find on the right side-bar]

Saturday, 08/09/2012

On 8/9, Hoa Son (Liangshan) has added 1 outbreak of H5N1 bird flu was discovered in the village packed with a total of 196 chickens, 87 ducks questions. After the inspection and detection of disease manifestations similar to the H5N1 flu, the Steering Committee for bird flu prevention district and commune levels in collaboration with veterinary forces carried out the destruction of whole chickens, geese with avian influenza. Implementation of anti-epidemic measures in families with infected poultry, livestock breeding sector are continuous disinfection spray 4-6 times / day, sprinkle lime powder in the surrounding environment in order to control and prevent the spread of the outbreak. Up to this point, in Luong Son district has four H5N1 flu outbreak in 2 Hoa Son, Hop Hoa. Our province is one of the seven localities across the country have announced.

Vietnam Prepares for #H5N1 Human Cases

Excerpt:

07-09-2012; 289 reads
     Day 6/9, Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung signed the power requirements of ministries, branches and localities to strengthen the prevention and control of pandemic influenza A (H5N1) in humans, hand, foot and mouth disease and dengue fever. As reported by the Ministry of Health, avian influenza occurred in many areas and the risk of spread is huge. As of 23.08.2012 the country has recorded four cases of influenza A (H5N1), including 2 patients died; hand, foot and mouth disease has 80,176 cases, of which 41 patients died ; hemorrhagic fever with 43,220 cases, of which 35 patients died.
     The epidemic continues to complicated and high-risk in the September, 10, 2012.


Established at the inspection team of prevention and treatment
     To prevent the risk of these diseases, minimize the number of cases of disease and death, the Prime Minister asked the presidents of People's Committees of provinces and cities directly under the Central Government should establish joint missions industry to test the prevention and control of epidemics in the districts and communes.
     At the same time, direct to strengthen inspection of hygiene and disease prevention in the residential, household, child care, kindergarten, grades slaughter, transport, trade, livestock and poultry.
     Along with that, promote and campaign for the implementation of hand washing with soap, sanitation removal wheel throwing, mosquito larvae, combined to launch a movement of patriotism until the sanitation districts, communes, hamlet, village, hamlet, the roof and the concentrated population.
     People's Committees of provinces and cities directly enhance the communication in the community through village health team, staff women, youth, veterans, family guide the implementation of protection measures disease prevention, personal hygiene, environmental sanitation.
     Willing to treat patients and treat outbreaks
     Prime Minister assigned the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development to direct the local organizations closely monitor the epidemic in poultry, waterfowl to detect early, thorough handling of the outbreak; timely reported for the health sector to coordinate the implementation of measures to prevent transmission of influenza A virus (H5N1) to humans.
     Ministry of Education and Training direct the propagation and implementation of measures for prevention of influenza A (H5N1), dengue fever and hand, foot and mouth disease in schools; while guiding students propagation prevention in families and communities; work closely with the health sector in the management of student health, immediately notify the health unit when detecting cases to coordinate treatment time.
     Ministry of Information and Communications Steering system information, the press promoting the propagation and dissemination of risk, harm and measures for prevention, focusing on high-risk groups , region, remote, ethnic minority.
     The Prime Minister asked the Ministry of Health closely monitor the local situation in the direct medical facilities available materials, equipment, drugs, chemicals for the treatment of patients and treatment outbreak management. Focus on implementing measures to reduce the mortality rate of influenza A (H5, N1), hand, foot and mouth disease and dengue fever.

Vietnam: The Centre Tests Protection from Exisiting Vaccine for Humans

[This article is from the Bangkok Post.  I bolded the sentence, because I had understood the previous articles to be speaking about vaccine for poultry, not humans.  This article states humans, and is not a translation.  This is an excerpt from VOV news, also in English.  It does not specify that the vaccine is for humans]:
As the new strain is different from the A/H5N1 virus, the ministry is to conduct experiments and tests to confirm if the vaccines that are being used to combat A/H5N1 are also effective against the new strain.
If the existing medication is ineffective, studies on new vaccines against the new strain should be conducted soon, Tan said, adding that he has asked the DoAH to isolate the virus for this purpose.The Central Veterinary Diagnosis Center is also monitoring and looking into the new strain to help find a specific medication against it.

Published: 8/09/2012 at 02:39 AM


A new highly-toxic strain of the potentially deadly bird flu virus has appeared in Vietnam and is spreading fast, according to state media reports.
The strain appeared to be a mutation of the H5N1 virus which swept through the country's poultry flocks last year, forcing mass culls of birds in affected areas, according to agriculture officials. The new virus "is quickly spreading and this is the big concern of the government", Deputy Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development Diep Kinh Tan said, according to a Thursday report in the VietnamNet online newspaper. Experts cited in the report said the new virus appeared in July and had spread through Vietnam's northern and central regions in August. Outbreaks have been detected in six provinces so far and some 180,000 birds have been culled, the Animal Health department said. The Central Veterinary Diagnosis Centre said the virus appeared similar to the standard strains of bird flu but was more toxic. The centre will test how much protection existing vaccines for humans offer, the report said. Some experts suggested that the new strain resulted from widespread smuggling of poultry from China into the northern parts of Vietnam. Two people have died this year from the virulent disease -- but long before the new strain was identified. According to the World Health Organisation, Vietnam has recorded one of the highest numbers of fatalities from bird flu in southeast Asia, with at least 59 deaths since 2003. The avian influenza virus has killed more than 330 people around the world, and scientists fear it could mutate into a form readily transmissible between humans, with the potential to cause millions of deaths.


Friday, September 7, 2012

Vietnam: PM orders new clampdown on all epidemics

September 7, 2012
Excerpt:
Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung on September 6 sent a message to ministries, sectors and localities to strengthen the prevention and control of the avian influenza A/H5N1, hand-foot-mouth disease and dengue fever.
-snip-

To prevent the risk of these diseases spreading, Dung asked the chairmen of municipal and provincial people's committees to establish interdisciplinary teams to inspect the prevention and control of epidemics in their localities, especially in residential areas, kindergartens and slaughter houses.
The sanitation and removal of mosquitos should be closely monitored, he said, before adding that provincial and city committees must increase the dissemination of information on the diseases and the methods of prevention via village-based health staff.
Dung has assigned the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development to guide local authorities to closely monitor the diseases of poultry and waterfowl to prevent transmission of the A/H5N1 virus to humans.
The Ministry of Education and Training will carry out measures to prevent the spreading of the three diseases at schools and will work with the health sector to assure the health of students.
The Ministry of Information and Communications has been placed in charge of disseminating information of the diseases to high-risk groups, including those living in remote areas and ethnic minorities.
Dung also asked the Ministry of Health to prepare medical equipment, drugs and chemicals for the treatment of patients and the prevention of outbreaks.

Vietnam: High alert for deadly bird influenza #H5N1

September 07, 2012
New highly toxic avian flu virus spreads to Vietnam
 Localities warned against new bird flu outbreaks

 As of August 23, four cases of A/H5N1 infection had been recorded with two deaths in Vietnam.

 Health workers said that the epidemic will become more complicated, especially in the northern and central regions, when it reaches its peak in the next two months. 

According to the national steering committee for bid flu prevention and control, seven provinces and cities, including Ha Tinh, Haiphong, Nam Dinh, Ninh Binh, Bac Kan, Quang Ngai and Thanh Hoa, have not yet passed the 21-day deadline for no bird flu infection.

 Nguyen Van Binh, head of the Health Ministry’s Preventive Health Department, said that the disease has occurred in Vietnam since 2003, causing a huge loss of human life and property.

He asked local authorities, relevant agencies and people to take sterilization and vaccination measures and strictly control the transport, slaughtering and trading of poultry in order to curb the epidemic.

 Recently, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development announced the appearance of a new H5N1 virus in Asia that is more dangerous than the original one.

 Associate Professor Nguyen Tran Hien, Director of the National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology (NIHE), confirmed that no cases of the new virus has been detected in Vietnam.

However, he said, it is urgent to prevent the A/H5N1 virus from changing into new types with higher toxic contamination through people-to-people transmission.

The healthcare sector should work more closely with relevant agencies and local households to intensify sanitation and sterilization work and quickly stamp out new outbreaks of the fatal disease, he added. ***

Meanwhile, the Prime Minister on September 6 urged ministries, sectors and localities to strengthen the prevention and control of the avian influenza A/H5N1, hand-foot-mouth disease and dengue fever.

 So far this year, there have been 80,180 cases of hand-foot-mouth disease with 41 deaths and 43,220 cases of dengue with 35 deaths.

To prevent these diseases from spreading, the PM asked the chairmen of provincial and city people's committees to establish interdisciplinary teams to inspect the prevention and control of epidemics in their localities, especially in residential areas, kindergartens and slaughterhouses. He emphasized the need to spray for mosquitoes and increase the dissemination of information on the preventive methods by village-based health staff.

The Government leader also assigned the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development to assist local authorities in the inspection of poultry and waterfowl diseases to prevent transmission of the A/H5N1 virus to humans.

Thursday, September 6, 2012

Many U.S. schools are unprepared for another pandemic

08/30/2012
Less than half of U.S. schools address pandemic preparedness in their school plan, and only 40 percent have updated their school plan since the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, according to study published in the September issue of the American Journal of Infection Control, the official publication of the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC). 
A team of researchers from Saint Louis University collected and analyzed survey responses from approximately 2,000 school nurses serving primarily elementary, middle, and high schools in 26 states to ascertain whether schools were prepared for another pandemic, particularly focusing on infectious disease disasters. Pandemic preparedness is critical not only because of ramifications of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, but also because of the threat of a future pandemic or an outbreak of an emerging infectious disease, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome. School preparedness for all types of disasters, including biological events, is mandated by the U.S. Department of Education.
The team found that less than one-third of schools (29.7 percent) stockpile any personal protective equipment, and nearly a quarter (22.9 percent) have no staff members trained on the school’s disaster plan. One-third (33.8 percent) of schools report training students on infection prevention less than once per year. Only 1.5 percent of schools report stockpiling medication in anticipation of another pandemic. On a positive note, although only 2.2 percent of schools require school nurses to receive the annual influenza vaccine, the majority (73.7 percent) reported having been vaccinated for the 2010/2011 season.
“Findings from this study suggest that most schools are even less prepared for an infectious disease disaster, such as a pandemic, compared to a natural disaster or other type of event,” says Terri Rebmann, PhD, RN, CIC, lead study author and associate professor of Environmental and Occupational Health at the Saint Louis University School of Public Health. “Despite the recent H1N1 pandemic that disproportionately affected school-age children, many schools do not have plans to adequately address a future biological event.”
The researchers conclude that U.S. schools must continue to address gaps in infectious disease emergency planning, including developing better plans, coordinating these plans with local and regional disaster response agency plans, and testing the plan through disaster drills and exercises. Whenever possible, school nurses should be involved in these planning efforts, as healthcare professionals can best inform school administrators about unique aspects of pandemic planning that need to be included in school disaster plans.
The full text of the article is available to journalists upon request; contact Liz Garman, APIC at 202-454-2604,egarman@apic.org to obtain copies.
ABOUT AJIC: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INFECTION CONTROL
AJIC: American Journal of Infection Control (www.ajicjournal.org) covers key topics and issues in infection control and epidemiology. Infection preventionists, including physicians, nurses, and epidemiologists, rely onAJIC for peer-reviewed articles covering clinical topics as well as original research. As the official publication of APIC, AJIC is the foremost resource on infection control, epidemiology, infectious diseases, quality management, occupational health, and disease prevention. AJIC also publishes infection control guidelines from APIC and the CDC. Published by Elsevier, AJIC is included in MEDLINE and CINAHL.
http://www.apic.org/For-Media/News-Releases/Article?id=3bfbae04-975b-4e3d-bf6c-dc99cda23d3b

Georges Benjamin, American Public Health Association Q&A: Sustaining Public Health

 Sept. 6, 2012
An upcoming Institute of Medicinesymposium on September 10 and 11, 2012—Sustaining Public Health Capacity in an Age of Austerity—will look at the impact of recent budget cuts on the ability of public health systems to be the front line in the prevention, identification, and control of infectious diseases, and public health generally.
The discussion is critical. Public health experts say the public health infrastructure in the United States and other counties has suffered decades of neglect and insufficient investment compounded by the global financial crisis and has resulted in substantial decreases in funding, resources and staff and inadequate training.
Discussion topics during the symposium include the changing nature of communicable and non-communicable diseases and their impact on global health and economic well-being; the current level and opportunities to improve preparedness of public health systems for anticipating, preventing, detecting, and responding to communicable disease outbreaks; and the impact of current and anticipated budget cutbacks on the health of the public.
Georges S. Benjamin, MD, executive director of the American Public Health Association, will be a participant in a key symposium panel: “New Thinking and Action in Public Health Practice, Workforce Development, and Retention.”NewPublicHealth spoke with Dr. Benjamin recently about the symposium and the impact of public health budget cuts.
NewPublicHealth: Tell us about the discussion you anticipate.
Dr. Benjamin: This is a forum on microbial threats and one of the areas being looked at is what so many of us in public health are facing—significant resource restraints as we go through the next several years. You have this collision of these two great forces: reduced resources and the need to be innovative as the system changes. We’re always trying to improve the system, but how we do that in the concept of the collision.
In addition to the panel, the full meeting has a lot of discussion about the impact of reduced public health capacity and in particular I’ll be speaking about workforce training and retention in the context of thinking about a path forward.
NPH: Why is a forum on microbial threats is taking such a broad view on public health capacity?
Continued:  http://blog.rwjf.org/publichealth/category/infectious-disease/

Not detect cases of avian influenza A/H5N1 virus in Vietnam

6/9/12 (Reuters) - The arrival of new bird flu virus more dangerous in poultry causing many people to worry. Evaluation of new avian influenza virus, the World Health Organization said that this transformation does not increase the risk to human health. Accordingly, recently, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development has announced the emergence of a new H5N1 virus in poultry. Compared with the H5N1 virus is still circulating earlier in their flocks, this new virulent virus are much higher. Assessment of the transformation of the A/H5N1 flu virus, Dr. Nguyen Tran Hien, Director of the Institute of about sich Epidemiology for that variation is not uncommon, but it is the change in natural evolution of the virus. Prior to that, from August / 2011, the International Food and Agriculture Organization has warned of the transformation of the A/H5N1 flu virus subgroup 2.3.2 in many Asian countries, including Vietnam ..

According to the research results of the H5N1 strain of the Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology Vietnam shows that there alternative avian influenza virus subgroup 1 (before 2007) in Subheading 2.3. 4 (from 2007 to present). Since 2005, the A/H5N1 flu virus changes slightly, but basically virulent as before. "This is just a small variation of the virus to create a new branch, not major changes to create a new strain", TS Show affirm.

The World Health Organization (WHO) also said that this variation of the H5N1 virus does not increase the risk for human health. Accordingly, avian influenza on still takes place Sporadic and isolated in humans through contact with infected birds or the environment and do not have the virus is transmitted from person to person.

 In Vietnam, Hien confirmed cases of avian influenza infection in humans so far have not seen anything unusual. Although avian influenza infections in humans is not unusual, the transformation of the virus in poultry is natural variation in the natural evolution of the virus, but TS Show also gives warning strengthening monitoring the virus is circulating in birds to detect the change and provide appropriate strategies to control outbreaks in poultry and human health protection. "Because most worrying thing is that the A/H5N1 flu virus continues to circulate and cause outbreaks in poultry. It can further small changes, rearranging the genetic reassortment with other influenza viruses circulating in animals and humans to form a new flu strain highly virulent and capable of human-to-human transmission ", PGS Show said.

 To A/H5N1 flu, the Ministry of Health strongly recommends that people do not kill, Poultry sick, dying and birds of unknown origin. Do not eat duck, do not eat meat and poultry has not been processed. When symptoms such as fever, cough, shortness of breath related to exposure to poultry immediately to the nearest medical facility for examination and treatment In addition to strengthening food cooked boiled drinking, personal hygiene is also important to promote measures to prevent the spread of avian in as: implementation of biosecurity in animal husbandry, hygiene regularly disinfect cages with sterilizing drugs, vaccine for poultry, bird detection O, mass death must immediately notify the authorities ...

 http://dantri.com.vn/c7/s7-638040/chua-phat-hien-ca-nhiem-virut-cum-gia-cam-ah5n1-moi-tai-viet-nam.htm

Evolution of the Avian H5 Hemagglutinin

From http://afludiary.blogspot.com/


http://www.who.int/influenza/gisrs_laboratory/201101_h5n1evoconceptualdiagram.pdf

Most schools unprepared for pandemics

09/05/2012
By: Megan Pringle
 A new study says many U.S. schools are not prepared for another pandemic.  Researchers at Saint Louis University analyzed about 2,000 school nurses at primary, elementary, middle and high schools in 26 states and found that less than half of the schools include pandemic preparedness in their school plan.

Read more:
http://www.abc2news.com/dpp/news/education/most-schools-unprepared-for-pandemics

Vietnam: Emergence of new avian influenza virus

9/6/12

As foreign contractors No. 213/2012 information, the Department of Animal Health (MARD) has officially announced that it has detected a new H5N1 avian influenza virus group: Affiliates 2.3.2.1 (group C).

Has spread to many provinces
According to the Department of Animal Health, recently, avian influenza began to recur in a number of provinces and cities, mainly in the North and North Central. Basically, the H5N1 flu virus, the first branch is still endemic in the southern provinces and branch 2.3.2.1 H5N1 virus circulating in the northern, central and Central Highlands.

Nguyen Van Tung, deputy director of the Central Veterinary Diagnostic Center (DAH) said: "The virus has a very broad distribution and fast in a very short time all the way from South North to Central. In terms of classification called the C group, but relatively close to group A, but do not know the exact origin of this new group of viruses spread from. We are preparing the next job to conduct new vaccine and vaccination experiments identified ".
According to Tung, experts predict genetic group of the new virus is also close to the group A than group B, so we are using the vaccine still capable of protection.
About the dangers the 2.3.2.1 C virus group, Mr Tung said: "Basically, all of the avian influenza virus H5N1 is always dangerous, because they have the ability to spread to humans. Particularly for group 2.3.2.1 C, where dangerous levels can not be determined, because we are continuing to do the next test ".  Meanwhile, according to Nguyen Thanh Son, Deputy Director of Animal Husbandry Department (MARD), this virus group can enter the country by way of smuggled Chinese poultry culling in recent times.
-snip-
Who killed three people in China
New variant of the H5N1 avian influenza virus isolated called H5N1 -2.3.2.1 C extremely toxic and has appeared endemic in Taiwan area, Hong Kong and Southern China at the end of 2004. It is particularly concerned that this new strain resistant to all existing vaccines and the risk of spread between people is very high. China's Ministry of Agriculture said the initial getting this new outbreak has killed 1,600 chickens and pathogenic for about 5,500 children. China's Ministry of Agriculture did not specify exactly where the first appearance of H5N1-2.3.2.1-C, but can be derived from a production farm in Xinjiang. In an effort to stamp out the epidemic, the Chinese agricultural quarantine, disinfection and disposal of 156 439 birds in this area.
The Chinese Ministry of Health report said, three fatal cases in Shenzhen in 2011 determined to contain viral pathogens branch of 2.3.2.1. Meanwhile, in Hong Kong, the branch 2.3.2.1 virus infections are usually detected in wild birds in the period from January 12 to May 2. China is vulnerable to avian flu as the country raising up to 25% chicken, 87% and 65% duck geese of the world. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), as of now, in the world with 565 people infected with A/H5N1 flu since the disease has been detected in humans (2003) and 331 cases of which mortality. Some where each face influenza A/H5N1 is Bulgaria, Israel, Mongolia, Nepal, Romania ...
China is testing a vaccine against the 2.3.2.1 branch C.
 http://danviet.vn/102898p1c24/xuat-hien-chung-virus-cum-gia-cam-moi-gay-dich-o-nhieu-tinh.htm

Vietnam Map 2.3.2.1C Outbreak

This is a map of the Provinces that currently have the 2.3.2.1C Outbreak.  The map will be updated periodically, and will be located on the right side-bar for future reference.  There was a recently finding of H5N1 in Ca Mau (extreme southern tip of the Country).  I don't have any confirmation as to the strain.

https://maps.google.com/maps/ms?msid=203813299286646113648.0004c905d4442b4f8756c&msa=0&ll=16.825574,112.521973&spn=16.479268,23.972168

Wednesday, September 5, 2012

Avian Influenza (H5N1) Virus of Clade 2.3.2 in Domestic Poultry in India [PLoS One 2/2012]


[This was published this past February, 2012]

South Asia has experienced regular outbreaks of H5N1 avian influenza virus since its first detection in India and Pakistan in February, 2006. Till 2009, the outbreaks in this region were due to clade 2.2 H5N1 virus. In 2010, Nepal reported the first outbreak of clade 2.3.2 virus in South Asia. In February 2011, two outbreaks of H5N1 virus were reported in the State of Tripura in India. The antigenic and genetic analyses of seven H5N1 viruses isolated during these outbreaks were carried out. Antigenic analysis confirmed 64 to 256-fold reduction in cross reactivity compared with clade 2.2 viruses. The intravenous pathogenicity index of the isolates ranged from 2.80–2.95 indicating high pathogenicity to chickens. Sequencing of all the eight gene-segments of seven H5N1 viruses isolated in these outbreaks was carried out. The predicted amino acid sequence analysis revealed high pathogenicity to chickens and susceptibility to the antivirals, amantadine and oseltamivir. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that these viruses belong to clade 2.3.2.1 and were distinct to the clade 2.3.2.1 viruses isolated in Nepal. Identification of new clade 2.3.2 H5N1 viruses in South Asia is reminiscent of the introduction of clade 2.2 viruses in this region in 2006/7. It is now important to monitor whether the clade 2.3.2.1 is replacing clade 2.2 in this region or co-circulating with it. Continued co-circulation of various subclades of the H5N1 virus which are more adapted to land based poultry in a highly populated region such as South Asia increases the risk of evolution of pandemic H5N1 strains.

Citation: Nagarajan S, Tosh C, Smith DK, Peiris JSM, Murugkar HV, et al. (2012) Avian Influenza (H5N1) Virus of Clade 2.3.2 in Domestic Poultry in India. PLoS ONE 7(2): e31844. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031844
Editor: Ron A. M. Fouchier, Erasmus Medical Center, The Netherlands
Received: August 4, 2011; Accepted: January 13, 2012; Published: February 20, 2012

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0031844

New highly toxic avian flu virus spreads to Vietnam

English News Site
05/09/2012

A new strain of avian flu virus that was found in China two months ago has appeared in Vietnam, health experts have confirmed.


The new strain, 2.3.2.1 C, which has been detected through epidemic investigations, is highly toxic and therefore extremely deadly, Diep Kinh Tan, Deputy Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development, said at a meeting on September 4 to review the epidemic situation.
The 2.3.2.1 C strain has recently spread to Vietnam and is now present in affected areas in seven provinces and cities, namely Haiphong, Ha Tinh, Ninh Binh, Nam Dinh, Bac Kan, Thanh Hoa and Quang Ngai, said Hoang Van Nam, head of the Department of Animal Health (DoAH).
As the new strain is different from the A/H5N1 virus, the ministry is to conduct experiments and tests to confirm if the vaccines that are being used to combat A/H5N1 are also effective against the new strain.
If the existing medication is ineffective, studies on new vaccines against the new strain should be conducted soon, Tan said, adding that he has asked the DoAH to isolate the virus for this purpose.
The Central Veterinary Diagnosis Center is also monitoring and looking into the new strain to help find a specific medication against it.
The avian flu has so far this year severely impacted the seven above-mentioned provinces and cities, with more than 181,000 ducks and chicken having died or been culled, the DoAH reported.
Most of these provinces are involved in smuggling poultry from China that might have carried pathogens that were then spread to domestic poultry, the department said.

http://english.vovnews.vn/Home/New-highly-toxic-avian-flu-virus-spreads-to-Vietnam/20129/141770.vov
 

Vietnam: Wary new avian influenza virus

Wednesday, 05/09/2012 23:48

New group of avian H5N1 virus appeared in July and 8-2012, spread very quickly from the north to the central region

5-9: Prof. Dr. Long Thanh, Director of the Central Veterinary Diagnostic Center - Department of Animal Health (hereinafter referred to as the center), said an avian H5N1 virus has appeared and the authorities of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development are analyzed to clarify the dangers of this new strain.

The risk of fatal Dr. Long Thanh said that the determination of the center, the new H5N1 virus group appear from July and 8-2012 spread very fast and wide all the way from the north to the central region.

Although the new virus belonging to the 2.3.2.1 branch had in Vietnam, but there are differences with the virus 2.3.2.1 (group A, B) causing the epidemic in 2011. "The risk of this virus causing bird flu continues to spread and especially close resemblance to the virulence of group A but much higher.

Vietnam bird flu appears highly lethal

[This article is a bit more clear, than one article below it] 05/09/2012 By DAH, many provinces and cities nationwide are being bird flu outbreak. Through epidemiological surveillance, the agency has discovered a new type of the H5N1 avian influenza virus brought 2.3.2.1 C code especially dangerous, spread fast, highly lethal. On 4/9, Hoang Van Nam, director of the Department of Animal Health (Ministry of Agriculture laboratory), that has now destroyed more than 181 thousand infected birds died from flu H5N1 in many provinces such as Ha Tinh and Hai Phong , Nam Dinh, Bac Kan, Thanh Hoa and Quang Ngai. Worryingly through epidemiological surveillance, identified one new H5N1 avian influenza virus, avian influenza virus was named 2.3.2.1 C, highly virulent, highly lethal and , appeared in China two months ago. The new H5N1 virus appears different from the virus in 2011. The virus appeared between July and August has spread fast and wide from North to South China. According to the original, this virus appeared at the same time outbreak Chinese chicken smuggled into the country. Although malicious virus was warned two months ago, but the chicken smuggled from China into Vietnam overflow lot. Every day, thousands of chicken waste of unknown origin and no quarantine security is sold openly in the market. Not NNN Rural Development Ministry not know low-quality poultry from China land in the Vietnamese market. The Ministry has also evaluated this is unusual, with high risk of disease spread. However, no specific measures to prevent and sanction for trade objects, spread chicken smuggled given. Actual control of the current animal transport is very loose, the sanctioning of offenders is not really serious. People not yet received any recommendations from the authorities to be able to distinguish what is illegal, what is the chicken "genuine" and chicken was safe quarantine. This is what has made it easy for Chinese chicken waste into Vietnam during the past years. Meanwhile, the Veterinary Department also said bird flu vaccines sources vaccine for the vaccination has been discontinued, and the experiments on the effect of the vaccine against the new strain also recently conducted a few days . That means that while waiting for the official instructions of the authorities, people only know how to protect themselves in a very vague way.

Tuesday, September 4, 2012

Vietnam: Avian influenza viruses are dangerous 2.3.2.1 #H5N1

09.05.2012 (VOV) - has identified a new H5N1 bird flu virus, named 2.3.2.1 C, highly virulent Mr. Hoang Van Nam, director of the Department of Animal Health, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, said that bird flu is endemic in Ha Tinh and Hai Phong, Nam Dinh and Ninh Binh, Bac Kan, Quang Ngai and Bar Chemistry, as more than 180,000 birds get sick, die or be destroyed. Worryingly through epidemiological surveillance, have identified a new type of the H5N1 avian influenza virus, avian influenza virus was named 2.3.2.1 C, high virulence. 2 months ago, there were several information on this new group of viruses appeared in China, highly virulent, deadly ability is also very high. This group of viruses has been in Vietnam. Currently the Ministry has asked the scientists attached to the quick implementation of the experiment, testing whether the bird flu vaccine is being used in effect for this virus group or not. /.
Mr. Hoang Van Nam, director of the Department of Animal Health, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, said that bird flu is endemic in Ha Tinh and Hai Phong, Nam Dinh and Ninh Binh, Bac Kan, Quang Ngai and Bar Chemistry, as more than 180,000 birds get sick, die or be destroyed. Worryingly through epidemiological surveillance, have identified a new type of the H5N1 avian influenza virus, avian influenza virus was named 2.3.2.1 C, high virulence. 2 months ago, there were several information on this new group of viruses appeared in China, highly virulent, deadly ability is also very high. This group of viruses has been in Vietnam. Currently the Ministry has asked the scientists attached to the quick implementation of the experiment, testing whether the bird flu vaccine is being used in effect for this virus group or not. /.

Leading the public health response to global outbreaks

By The Partnership for Public Service Published: August 31, 2012 Dr. Ali Khan is a disease tracker for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) who has gone on the trail more than 40 outbreaks of mysterious infectious diseases and public health disasters over the past two decades, both here and abroad, seeking to identify causes, the extent of the infected populations and how to halt the spread of the disease. He has investigated hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Ebola hemorrhagic fever, monkey pox, Rift Valley fever and avian influenza, to name a few. -snip- One of Khan’s roles is to help the CDC reach out to people and encourage them to put together an emergency kit, come up with an evacuation plan in advance and stay informed and help their neighbors during an actual emergency. With such preparation, he said, individuals and families will be able to take care of themselves for the first couple of hours and days after an emergency situation. A recent publicity campaign tried to drive the point home to a wide audience by playing off the popularity of zombies. “If you’re prepared for a zombie apocalypse, you’re prepared for anything,” Khan said, explaining the concept behind the tongue-in-cheek blog campaign. That includes hurricanes, earthquakes, nuclear accidents and public health emergencies. The CDC is using the blog to convey the serious message that people should be ready not only for all major crises, but for more routine situations too, such as flu, whooping cough or wildfires. “I thought it was brilliant,” Sharfstein said. “It helps people understand the concept of all-hazards preparedness.” Link: http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/leading-the-public-health-response-to-global-outbreaks/2012/08/31/dd7e10f4-f3a9-11e1-892d-bc92fee603a7_story.html

Iraq: Kirkuk Precautionary measures prior to ensure that bird flu does not

2012-09-04 Kirkuk health department has taken a number of precautionary measures to ensure that strict entry of bird flu to the province. Reported that the official spokesman for the Ministry of Health, Dr. Ziad Tariq, explaining that "the actions taken by the Department of Health to maintain comes within the programs in the field of disease prevention and transitional expatriate although no registration of any disease mentioned in the province

He media source in the Health Department maintain that the measures mentioned taken in the light of the spread of bird flu in many countries and according to a report OIE which I spread of the disease in the countries of Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Hong Kong, Laos, Myanmar, Egypt , Vietnam, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, South Africa, Indonesia, Nepal, the Australia and Sri Lanka The actions included the implementation of campaigns going on the market outlets food processing across the province and a screening process for detecting the presence of any contamination bacterial, and Report traders to prevent the import of live birds and ornamental eggs types (hatching - table) and bird feathers and all the materials that go into poultry and its products from these countries as well as the destruction of existing ones in the local markets, if any. Department also called for the citizens of the province and through the media not to buy live birds and decorations Tstsoba materials that go into poultry and their products imported from these countries.

Vietnam: 7 Provinces with #H5N1 in Poultry - Continuously Monitoring Circulation of 2.3.2.1

Spread of avian influenza in a number of localities * The risk of loss of riverbanks in Hòa Lam (Nghệ An).   According to the Meteorological Center forecast - Thủy văn T.Ư, in September, the North and Central provinces have the possibility of three to four medium rains. In particular, there may appear the heavy rainfall in a short period, should prevent flood up fast on the rivers, flash floods and rock slides, especially in mountainous areas where the terrain is steep.

 In the meeting of the National Steering avian influenza prevention and control, 4-9, in Hanoi, the Department of Animal Health said: In the past two weeks, avian influenza continue to occur in three provinces: Bắc Cạn, Quảng Ngãi, Thanh Hóa, bringing the total number of local avian provinces and cities to seven across the country.

Blue ear disease, there are two more Bac Can and Can Tho have PRRS less than 21 days. 

Worryingly, the current in the northern region appeared the H5N1 virus group, with the difference with viruses 2.3.2.1 (group A and group B) disease in 2012 ... the risk of spread is very high. Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development to direct the Department of Animal Health, Animal Health Diagnostic Center of Central continuously monitors the circulation of the virus first appeared in 2012, should be concluded early on vaccine effectiveness vaccine for the new virus to vaccination branch bird flu vaccine in the future, and launched May sanitary disinfection nationwide in September.

As of September 4-9, Nam Ðịnh province has 12 xã, the districts of Ý Yên, Vụ Bản và Giao Thủy birds have bird flu. The total number of birds in the local destruction is far more than 12 thousand.

In a new outbreak is Vĩnh Hào, Ðại Thắng, Hiển Khánh (Vụ Bản), Yên Phong (Ý Yên), Thọ Nghiệp (Xuân Trường) under the provincial Animal Health Department to direct cleaning, disinfecting stables and farms ; prohibits put poultry and poultry products from regions from areas ... Afternoon 4-9, Quang Ngai province has an emergency meeting to discuss measures to deal with bird flu is complicated in the province. By day 3-9, outbreaks have occurred in 29 villages of 22 communes in six districts and 72,916 ducks were killed and destroyed. Provincial agriculture coordination Animal Health Agency Region IV sampling tests, determine causes and organizations control the outbreak and fully prepared ready epidemic conditions. Emergency sector has allocated one million doses of bird flu vaccine for seven districts to implement the vaccination measures, and control ... PPC requires relevant agencies need to continue to strengthen measures to prevent and combat the disease.

Vietnam: Ca Mau Province: 6 poultry samples positive for #H5N1

Vietnam has the strain 2.3.2.1 in the Northern and Central sections of the country. Ca Mau Province is in the South. I will try and determine if that strain has reached Southern Vietnam.

04/09/2012, 08:25:16 3-9, Department of Agriculture and Rural Development of Ca Mau Province said, recently discovered six poultry samples positive for influenza H5N1, in Tran Van Thoi Thoi Binh and Ca Mau City. For disease control, Ca Mau province has instructed relevant agencies to consolidate Steering prevention services at all levels; establishment inspection especially in high-risk areas, check , regular transport and trade of poultry and livestock in the area ... Provincial Health proactive measures to prevent and combat the H5N1 flu. * Afternoon 3-9, Tran Hung, Deputy Sub-Department of Animal Health, Ha Tinh province, said up to this point in Ha Tinh province has basically successfully controlled the outbreak of avian influenza and not to detect outbreak new influenza. From the end of the month 7-2012, outbreak of bird flu outbreak in Ha Tinh mainly in Cam Xuyen district, Thach Ha, then add some communes in Ky Anh District, Can Loc district, Ha Tinh ... made more than 30,000 poultry (chicken, duck) infected and sick death and destruction. Central and provincial level more than 1 million doses of vaccine, more than 2,500 liters of chemicals to epidemic prevention institutions. Known, the total poultry population of the province of Ha Tinh up to 5.2 million children. D.Tuyen - D.Quang Source: SGGP Online

Clinical trial in Thailand is among first in the world for live attenuated influenza vaccine for avian influenza

9/4/12
Embassy of the United States Bangkok Thailand
Today, Thailand became one of the first countries in the world to test an H5N1 avian influenza vaccine in a needle-free, nasal spray formulation. The development and testing of the new vaccine is part of the National Strategy Plan for Pandemic Preparedness that the Thai government released in 2005 in response to highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in Thailand. Avian influenza viruses such as H5N1 can be passed from infected birds to humans and have the potential of becoming a pandemic if the virus changes in a way that makes it easily contagious among humans.

This Phase I clinical trial of a live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV), the first step in testing new vaccines in humans, resulted from international collaboration between health agencies around the world, including the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ (HHS) Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA). Through a grant to the World Health Organization, BARDA has provided funding and technical assistance to support Thailand’s GPO as well as other developing countries. The grant supported building pilot scale manufacturing facilities to produce the vaccine, devising a clinical trial process to study the vaccine’s effectiveness in protecting people against avian influenza and a regulatory process to evaluate the vaccine, as well as conducting clinical trials in humans.

Thailand’s GPO sent a dozen scientists to the United States for training in advanced bio-manufacturing skills and good manufacturing practices. BARDA established the training program and continues to sponsor the program at the North Carolina State University and Utah State University.

“Influenza vaccines remain a critical component of public health preparedness worldwide,” explained BARDA Director Robin Robinson, Ph.D. “By enhancing the capacity of developing countries to develop, manufacture, and test their own influenza vaccines, we are improving pandemic preparedness globally.”

Robinson noted that conducting this clinical trial demonstrates a milestone in international efforts to accelerate development of locally produced influenza vaccines. The study and data analysis for this clinical trial are expected to be completed by May 2013.

http://bangkok.usembassy.gov/influenza_vaccine_trial_thailand.html

CDC Reports More Cases, Hospitalizations and Nation’s First H3N2v-Associated Death

[editing is mine]
Page last updated: August 31, 2012
 
Today, CDC is reporting 12 additional cases of H3N2 variant virus (H3N2v) infection, as well as the first H3N2v-associated death, which was reported by the state of Ohio. The death occurred in an older adult with multiple underlying health conditions who reportedly had direct exposure to pigs in a fair setting. While limited person-to-person spread of this virus has been detected and likely continues to occur sporadically, no sustained community transmission has been found. CDC is monitoring this situation and working with states to respond to these evolving outbreaks. The agency continues to urge people at high risk from serious flu complications to stay away from pigs and pig arenas at fairs this summer.
"We’re saddened to hear about the death of one person in Ohio associated with the current H3N2v outbreaks," says CDC’s Dr. Lyn Finelli. "Like with seasonal flu, we have been – and continue to be – particularly concerned about people with factors that put them at high risk of serious complications if they get the flu. These people should absolutely not have contact with pigs or visit pig arenas at fairs this summer." Dr. Finelli is Lead for the Surveillance and Outbreak Response Team in CDC’s Influenza Division.
High risk factors for serious flu complications include: being younger than 5 years (especially children younger than 2 years), or 65 and older, pregnancy, and certain chronic medical conditions like asthma, diabetes, heart disease, weakened immune systems, and neurological or neurodevelopmental conditions. A full list of high risk conditions is available on the CDC seasonal flu website.
"Anyone with a high risk factor should not only avoid pigs and pig arenas at fairs, but they should also seek prompt medical attention if they get flu-like symptoms, especially if they have pig exposure, but even in the absence of pig exposure," Finelli says.
CDC has issued information for clinicians on H3N2v; guidance which underscores the importance of rapid antiviral treatment of influenza, including H3N2v virus infection, in high risk patients. The H3N2v virus is susceptible to the influenza antiviral drugs oseltamivir (Tamiflu ®) and zanamivir (Relenza ®).
For seasonal flu, CDC recommends that it is best that people with high risk conditions who develop flu-like symptoms contact their doctor, tell them about their symptoms, and remind them about their high risk status. For the current H3N2v outbreaks, if high risk people have exposure to pigs, it’s especially important that they tell their doctor about this exposure.
"Like with seasonal flu," Finelli says, "prompt antiviral treatment in a high risk person can mean the difference between having a milder illness versus a very serious illness that could result in a hospital stay or even death," says Finelli. "This message is critical not only for people who are at high risk, but for America’s doctors who are treating these patients. We want their suspicion for H3N2v to be high right now. Ask patients with influenza-like-illness if they have pig exposure, but regardless of whether they do, if they have a high risk factor, treat them empirically with antivirals for influenza without waiting for testing results."
The 12 new cases reported this week are from the states of Minnesota (1), Ohio (3), Pennsylvania (1), and Wisconsin (7). Cumulative totals for 2011 and 2012 by state are available in the H3N2v case count table.
Symptoms of H3N2v have been consistent with seasonal influenza and can include some or all of the following: fever, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, muscle or body aches, headaches and fatigue. Like with seasonal flu, it’s possible that not everyone will have a fever. This may be particularly true in elderly people or people with weakened immune systems, whose bodies may not mount as effective an immune response to the virus infection.
Found in U.S. pigs in 2010 and humans in July 2011, this H3N2v virus appears to spread more easily from pigs to people than other variant influenza viruses. Most reported cases to date have occurred in people who are exhibiting or helping to exhibit pigs at fairs this season after close and prolonged contact with pigs. "So far more than 90 percent of cases have occurred in people who are exhibiting or helping to exhibit pigs, or who are family members of these people. That is why our message is so targeted," says Finelli. CDC has developed recommendations and materials for people attending fairs this summer and is working with states as well as organizations like 4-H National Headquarters and the International Association of Fairs and Expositions to disseminate these messages and materials.
CDC also has developed supplemental H3N2v guidance for schools. Last year, there was at least one outbreak of H3N2v in a day care setting in the fall and CDC believes it possible that localized outbreaks of H3N2v, particularly in schools or day cares, may occur as the weather turns colder and schools across the country are underway. "The guidance document is a heads up for schools to be aware of, and on the look-out for, illness with this virus," Finelli explains.
"It’s important to remember that this is an evolving situation that could change quickly." Finelli concludes, "We’re constantly looking at our data and re-evaluating."

http://www.cdc.gov/flu/spotlights/h3n2v-more-cases.htm

India: Dengue kills 2 more, toll touches 9



India: Dengue: Minister advises Kolkatans not to panic



KOLKATA: State urban development minister Firhad Hakim said on Monday that certain political quarters were spreading panic on dengue. "There is no need to panic. Many people are rushing to hospitals and nursing homes only to be told that they have typhoid, viral fever or some other ailment," Hakim said. "The reality is not what those in the opposition are making it appear."
 -snip-
When informed that many hospitals were no longer admitting patients and had even displayed boards "regretting" it, Hakim said he was not aware of it. He said the health department was better equipped to speak on the issue and as chairman of SSKM hospital he was aware that such a thing was not happening in SSKM.

Chief minister Mamata Banerjee said that a directive has been issued to check the spread of dengue. Three people, she said, have died of dengue in Kolkata so far.


Complete Article: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/kolkata/Dengue-Minister-advises-Kolkatans-not-to-panic/articleshow/16243822.cms

India: Dengue like an epidemic in some areas, concedes Kolkata mayor

Sep 4, 2012

 KOLKATA: Dengue outbreak has taken the proportion of an epidemic over the last couple of weeks, but the Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) is yet to put an extra effort to prevent it from spreading. Sources in the KMC told TOI that the civic body had to "compromise" with dengue awareness campaign this year for want of funds.

 However, the KMC has finally woken up and went on a damage-control drive, with mayor Sovan Chatterjee, who even a week ago dismissed the gravity of dengue outbreak by saying it was a "routine" phenomenon, on Monday admitting that the situation was grave and it can take the proportion of an epidemic in some areas of the city.

The civic body has now set up a dozen of makeshift dengue clinics, started distributing leaflets and also assigned autos to spread awareness on the disease. "We have intensified our drive against dengue across the city. It is true that dengue has been spreading in some areas in Kolkata very fast. We have devised our plans to combat the disease accordingly," Chatterjee said on Monday.

Continued:  http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/kolkata/Dengue-like-an-epidemic-in-some-areas-concedes-Kolkata-mayor/articleshow/16243848.cms