Friday, January 16, 2009
When careful Travel Vietnam on the occasion of Chinese New Year
(Santa Ana) - People traveling to the Chinese New Year festival to the national report on the case with avian influenza A (H5N1) should carefully before you go, the trip and the trip Travel their calendar.
- Between the travel, avoid direct contact with animals have wings, including chickens and ducks are wild birds and do not visit the farm raising chickens or ducks to you is where birds of all kinds keep raising flyer alive. Wash hands frequently with soap and water, oil or wash your hands with the characteristics of alcohol (alcohol gel hand-bases) where not available soap and water. Make sure all food from chickens to ducks, including cooked eggs should be cooked before you actually eat.
To protect the entire health, tourists need more careful as to prevent the mosquitoes bite, avoid eating food and drinking poison, and avoid contact with animals. Visit the website for the electronic traveler's control Dịch Center (CDC) for more information.
- After returning, tracking their health in 7 days. If you have hot fever accompanied by cough, or are very difficult breathing, contact your doctor and provide details of the symptoms, where you have to travel and if you ever direct contact with chickens ducks or with patients.
- The physician practice in Orange County for treatment of patients with symptoms of respiratory road travel each previous 7 days in the region occurred cases with avian influenza A (H5N1) and then to have the symptoms of the disease, it should immediately contact the Office of Public Health (Public Health) at (714) 834-8180 to discuss the test properly.
There has been an outbreak of bird flu for the first time in the country today. The deadly H5N1 strain of virus has been detected at Kakarbhitta, which shares a border with West Bengal in India, in Jhapa district.
An emergency cabinet today meeting declared the affected zone ‘bird flu crisis-hit area’.
“No bird flu symptoms in human have been detected till now. But we are planning to monitor the health of the people in the affected area. Preliminary estimates suggest that the virus will be eliminated within a month,” said Tek Bahadur Thapa, secretary, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives (MoAC).
The government has decided to cull 13,000 chickens and birds in a radius of three-km area
over the next five days. The government has also promised to give compensation to
the poultry owners.
A blanket ban has also been imposed on rearing and consuming poultry products in the affected area for the next three months. Health and surveillance teams from the capital are being dispatched to tackle the crisis.
“The Rapid Response personnel are coming from Kathmandu. The affected area has a local and broiler chicken population of 2,000 and 10,000, respectively,” said Dr Dilip Sapkota, chief, District Livestock Services Office.
Seven samples were sent for test to OIE Reference Laboratory, Weybridge, UK, on January 11. The results proved to be positive today.
Initially, the test was conducted at the Laboratory of Department of Livestock Services, Tripureshwor, on January 7.
Mysterious death of 11 chickens, which belonged to Ramesh Karki, a resident of Mechinagar Municipality, triggered panic. Subsequent, samples were sent for test.
“The government is yet to figure out the source of the virus. We will urge the Indian government to help stop the import of poultry products,” said Dr Prabhakar Pathak, director general, Department of Livestock Services.
Nepal has banned import of poultry products from India on January 5 after the outbreak of the disease was reported at Matigara in neighbouring Darjeeling district. It is about 36 km from Kakarbhitta.
According to Thapa, the poultry industry accounts for four per cent Gross Domestic Product. Around 65,000 people are associated with the trade.
HHS Secretary Mike Leavitt and Commissioner of the HHS Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Andrew C. von Eschenbach, M.D., today marked the opening of the HHS/FDA offices in New Delhi, and Mumbai, India.
"Through these offices, we can work more closely with manufacturers to share best practices and ensure producers build quality and safety into food and medical products," Secretary Leavitt said. "Consumers in India and the United States will benefit from the enhanced safety of food, drugs and medical devices. If called upon, we are also prepared to work with the Indian government as it strengthens its own regulatory institutions."
HHS/FDA will post 10 experienced officials in India to work closely with industries that ship food and medical products to the United States, to improve safety and quality, which will facilitate the smooth flow of trade. Along with the Office Director, HHS/FDA will have four inspectors and five senior technical experts who will cover food, medical devices and medicines.
These HHS/FDA personnel will provide technical advice, conduct inspections of facilities that export to the United States, and work with Indian government agencies and the private sector to develop certification programs to allow the efficient flow of safe HHS/FDA-regulated goods between the United States and India.
These offices are part of HHS/FDA's Beyond Our Borders Initiative, which will place 35 HHS/FDA personnel in 14 locations around the world, mostly connected to U.S. Embassies, Consulates and Missions. This initiative will expand HHS/FDA consumer-protection efforts beyond the United States to form collaborative partnerships with governments and industry on product safety.
In January 2008, Secretary Leavitt and Commissioner von Eschenbach visited India to start discussions with Indian industry about the issue of product safety, and with the Indian government on the potential of posting HHS/FDA personnel to the U.S. Embassy in New Delhi and the U.S. Consulate in Mumbai. The goal of these discussions was to establish a pathway to improve regulatory cooperation for the benefit of American and Indian consumers. While in India, they toured food- and pharmaceutical-manufacturing facilities.
India is the fourth-largest exporter by volume of drugs and biologics, especially generic pharmaceuticals, to the United States. India is also a significant exporter of food products.
With the opening of these offices, HHS/FDA now has an in-country presence in China, Central America, India, and Europe. HHS/FDA also plans to post FDA personnel to several more locations in 2009 -- México, South America, Europe and the Middle East.
|16 January 2009|
The United States is concerned that the ongoing outbreaks of H5N1 avian influenza in birds, or bird flu, have the potential to turn into a human influenza pandemic. Whenever or wherever a pandemic begins, everyone around the world will be at risk.
To fuel a pandemic, a virus must be able to easily spread from person to person. And although currently the H5N1 virus does not spread easily from human to human, its mortality rate in humans is so high-over 60 percent-that we cannot take the chance that it will not do so in the future. Several influenza pandemics have occurred during the last century. The pandemic in 1918-1919 spread to every continent, and caused at least 40 million deaths world wide.
The effects of a pandemic can be lessened if preparations are made ahead of time. Working through the International Partnership on Avian and Pandemic Influenza, the U.S. Government and others in the international community have developed national and international programs to prevent, detect, and limit the spread of the avian flu virus.
Central to that effort is building infrastructure, including laboratory capacity and international rapid response mechanisms; a global surveillance and warning system; a coordinated plan of intervention; and of course, the development of vaccines. The U.S. has pledged $ 949 million in support of these efforts.
Preparing for a pandemic is difficult but necessary. "We need to maintain our sense of urgency with respect to the pandemic threat if the momentum of preparedness and capacity building is to be maintained," says Ambassador John Lange, Special Representative on Avian and Pandemic Influenza for the U.S. Department of State.
"Capacity building doesn't garner headlines, but the threat persists and large-scale injections of resources and energy are still needed to prepare for and respond to a potential pandemic."
|BANGKOK, Jan 16 (TNA) - Thailand's public health ministry has added 14 provinces in bird flu prone areas out of 76 provinces to the nine provinces already monitored for better disease prevention in wider areas and effective healthcare for patients.|
Dr. Paijit Warachit, Deputy Permanent Secretary for the Public Health presided over a meeting of 200 executives and health officials in 14 provinces aimed at stepping up surveillance against any possible bird flu outbreak and measures to offer medical treatment to the suspected bird-flu patients effectively.
Meanwhile, Director-general of the Department of Disease Control, ML Somchai Chakrabhand, said the department had set the new standard to closely monitor avian influenza-prone areas.
The new standard cover the provinces where the confirmed human cases were found between 2004-2008, where a bird flu outbreak was repeated and where suspected birdflu cases were detected most.
The new standard, which will help health officials to handle the possible outbreak from the outset, covers 14 provinces, including Bangkok, Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Ayutthaya, Lop Buri, Chai Nat, Prachin Buri, Nakhon Nayok, Suphan Buri Kanchanaburi, Nakhon Ratchasima, Chaiyaphum, Khon Kaen and Nong Bua Lam Phu.
Nine provinces were already under alert since December: Sukhothai, Uthai Thani, Phitsanulok, Uttaradit, Nakhon Sawan, Kampaeng Phet, Pichit, Phetchabun and Tak.
The Friday's meeting also reviewed existing measures to improve implementation for fast access to local communities in order to detect and contain the disease if occurs.
The meeting also discussed equipment preparation and personnel training for fast response to the possible outbreak.
Trời rét, children, elderly hospitalized increased
Low temperature, especially the difference in temperature between day and night in the past has prevented many children, old people falling sick. The hospital in Hanoi to more than talent.
TS. Le Thanh Hai - Deputy Director of Children's Hospital T.U - for only 3 days rét bold, average daily BV have to 1400-1600 to examine patients, increased 30% compared with the previous day. Patients hospitalized children mainly due to the flu disease, inflammation and respiratory road diarrhea by Rotavirus.
Currently, in many of the scientific BV, the sick children had to be found pair 2-3 child / beds. Account digestive, always in a state overloaded when only 25 beds but the number of patients to hospital every day from 70 to 110 grandchildren. Not only the number of patients increased, he fell to below 3 years old but most of the patients are quite heavy, high fever, non lot, diarrhea continued to lose water, electricity resolution disorders.
In BV Bach Mai, according to Dr. Nguyen Tien Dung - Chief of Pediatrics, the number of patients to examine also increased 2-3 times normal, in which nearly 30% of patients were diarrhea Rotavirus level. BV in Saint Paul, the number of children to examine at BV in 1 week through about 250-300 children a day, of which 60-70% of children to be bronchitis, pneumonia, many cases must be treated with antibiotics long day.
Those who fear rét and uncomfortable rét other is the old man. Dr. Tien University - Faculty of examination, the Lao national science - that, on average each day, about 40-50 patients to examine, more than 30% decrease compared with the previous period. But most of the serious diseases: hypertension, disaster brain blood vessels, vành circulatory disease, bone joint disease. Patients from various provinces, city, but only those of very serious diseases can not be treated at home was brought to BV.
Dr. Do Thi Khanh Hy - Vice Director of the Lao Institute of Health - said the science inpatient treatment have more than 80 patients are located treatment, mainly the elderly over 70 years old and are in very serious condition.
Day 14 - 1, Minister of Health Nguyen Quoc Trieu has sent official health sector of the province, city required to arrange the time of 24/24 hours, ensuring capable timely processing of cases emergency, traffic accidents, birth in the New Year. Local medical need proactive in prevention and disease, especially preventive and H5N1, we can Bùng play again, the infectious disease and other causes. Closely control the use of additives in food processing, hygiene and implementation of food safety in order to reduce the maximum number of food poisoning occurred in the Tet festival (Lao slide 15 / 1).
On 15/1/2009. Update at 10 h 39 '
As rét bold, rét harmful long has been a disease reproductive disorders, respiratory on poultry. According Its italy (Department of Agriculture and Rural Development in Hanoi), the city has more than 14.2 million children influenza, the number of poultry breeding industry with the disease Respiratory increased 21.5% compared with the same period in before, causing great damage to farm livestock.
Its italy recommended raising the enhanced care, feeding poultry, farm hygiene chuồng clean, spray insecticide periodically, to keep warm for influenza, using all kinds of vaccines vaccinated patients. When birds are manifestations of illness, death quickly notice immediately for veterinary facilities to guide care, treatment. Do not hide the disease, served sale, selling or removing the poultry slaughter as the disease spread disease.
Likely H5N1 Spread to South Sikkim
Recombinomics Commentary 20:05
January 16, 2009
Official sources here said the chickens had died in three areas of Ravangla and its adjoining areas. The first death of chickens was reported on January 14 after which State Animal Husbandry officials had taken the samples to Bhopal as the cause of the deaths.
The above comments describe the likely spread of H5N1 South Sikkim (see updated map). Today Nepal confirmed H5N1 near its borders with West Benal and Bihar. H5N1 has also been confirmed in multiple areas of Darjeeling, including the Darjeeling Hlls which are just south of Sikkim.
H5N1 in Sikkim would not be a surprise. The outbreaks in Suliguri are surrounded nature reserves and wild animal sanctuaries, and birds migrate to the south as the temperature drops.
Testing in India however remains suspect. H5N1 has been reported in or around Qinghai Lake in China in every year since 2005, and birds from Qinghai Lake spend the winter in northern India, yet India has never reported H5n1 in a wild bird.
The outbreak in Nepal, which was confirmed in England, raised concerns about H5N1 surveillance in the area due to minimal testing of tissues in dead or dying birds, and throat swabs in at risk individuals.
Rét, many hospital
TP - The price rét past, overloaded patients hospitalized for inflammatory disease on respiratory, cardiovascular, blood pressure due to low temperature is the state of many hospitals in both Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh.
Children injected antibiotics at BV Children T.U
Doctor Middle England - the science Lao Vietnam (based in Hanoi), said the number of patients examined at the hospital increased by 30% compared with normal. Patients hospitalized primarily because of cardiovascular disease, blood pressure, bronchitis.
There are up to 50% of patients hospitalized in serious condition. In the mainly cardiovascular diseases as hypertension, disaster brain blood vessels, vành circulatory disease, bone joint disease. Most older patients hospitalized in the price rét this money to have a chronic disease, the face of cold weather disease recurrence and severity.
At Children's Hospital T.U, Dr. Nguyen Thanh Liem - Director of Hospital, said in the rét bold, average per day from 1400 to 1600 to examine the patient, a 30% increase compared with the previous day. Patients hospitalized children mainly due to flu, respiratory inflammation road and by Rotavirus diarrhea. Temp low rates make patients hospitalized due to the relatively more hen.
Dr. Dao Minh Tuan - Faculty respiratory (Children's Hospital T.U), hen that waste management is the process of chronic inflammation in line with the respiratory disease first raised cause acute pet hen. In many children, the illness or occur at night when the weather changed from hot to cold, each time with the northeast monsoon carry on the northern provinces.
The Department of Children's Hospital in T.U always overloaded situation when only 25 beds but the flow of patients into the day in average about 80 grandchildren. Dang alarm most children are hospitalized in fairly serious condition, high fever, non lot, diarrhea continued to lose water, electricity resolution disorders.
Doctor Hoang Minh Thu - Head of Pediatrics, Saint Paul Hospital (Hanoi), said the nearly 300 children to the examination in a week, 60 - 70% of children with bronchitis, pneumonia. Many of the patients treated with antibiotics from 5 - 7 days.
TPHCM: increased disease
The number of patients hospitalized for illness related to the respiratory tract is also in on cold weather to last. At respiratory Science, Children's Hospital of 1, 14 / 1, with 150 children are treated, 50% of which were inflamed primary waste management is due to the weather.
Besides the number of children hospitalized because of increased diarrhea and respiratory tract, from 1 to early this month, in Vietnam the number of fever in the blood (SXH) still has not stopped. On 14 / 1, doctor Nguyen Dac Tho - Deputy Director of Health Center for Vietnam, said Vietnam has all the 170 wards and communes have SXH.
The number of outbreaks SXH Bùng not only to play outside, but also appear in the district to as District 1, 6, 11, Tan Binh, Binh Thanh District. Since the beginning of the year to date, Vietnam recorded 515 cases.
Recorded at Children's Hospital of 1, 2 TPHCM on 14 / 1 that a week ago back to children hospitalized with diarrhea increased. According to doctor Pham Thi Ngoc Tuyet-Dean digestive Children's Hospital of 2 years from the beginning until now, here, over 900 child hospital treatment. Average daily ward received 100-120 grandchildren, mainly under the age of three, in which more than 80% were diarrhea level.
Faculty at The Children's Hospital and co-1, a day also received nearly 40 you have diarrhea hospital treatment, 50 patients from the provincial move to. The reasons, according to doctors, the virus infection in food, drink and the air.
Return of cold
Children infected respiratory increase road
Cold Weather unusual and prolonged than the last two weeks are causing many people familiar with the warm weather better. Hospital, and the clinic from being overloaded patients to examine the diseases related to cold weather, such as cough, cold, the nose, sore throat. The Children's Hospital also in the situation at the respiratory ward.
From early January to now, the child hospitalization, inpatient treatment for the disease Respiratory increasing. Children's Hospital 1 Dong statistics last time the average daily received 4500 turns sick children, most of the Respiratory Diseases. In addition to examining the child feel as cough, runny nose, hot, fever, the doctor Tran Anh Tuan, chief scientific respiratory hospitals callisthenics 1, children often inflamed by the primary waste management, pneumonia and Asthma.
According to Children's Hospital of Dong Dong Nai, each day has more than 1,000 of the examination, in which more than 50% of children have the disease Respiratory. Especially respiratory ward of the hospital every day and receiving treatment for more than 100 sick children mainly have the pneumonia patients, hen, bronchitis, concentrated in age from birth to age two, up more than the same period of years ago.
With predictions of doctors, first cold air has caused disease and inflammation of primary wasted common in children but high points last season but not decreased but increased again higher. Diseases due to a respiratory virus road caused the ability to spread and very common in children under two years old. Initially, children were only sneeze, cough, runny nose, then the rattling, rapid breathing, breathing can drag chest, respiratory failure. For children under three months old, primary inflammatory disease often wasted on the fast progress. Children infected inflamed primary wasted a lot of times, are not treated early risk transfer to asthma.
Is alarming is the last time many children under two years old have also proven hen waste management, in the past, the most common disease in children 3 to 4 years old. To cold weather conditions are favorable for making young pet hen. The children of the raucous, but withdrawn. In young adults breathing the killing, even talk also difficult, to break many times there say the new round me. Asthma is also the cause of child deaths caused in the cold season. According to doctor Nguyen Phuong Hoa Binh, chief scientific examination earn Dean respiratory 1, Children's Hospital Dong 2, have the parents see their child stertorous have to buy medicine for sick children drink made worse because the medication not correct the disease.
According to recommendations of the hospital, during the cold weather moving, parents need to keep warm attention for children, especially at night, avoid bringing children to the people, kids eating enough nutrients . When children have symptoms of cough, breathing tired, eating poorly, to put children to visit the health facilities, not for child medication without specified by your doctor.
H1N1 Tamiflu Resistance Spreads Across Europe
Recombinomics Commentary 16:54
January 16, 2009
Fifty-one of 52 influenza A(H1N1) viruses analysed (98%) were resistant to oseltamivir
The above comments from the week 2 EISS report indicates H1N1 Tamiflu resistance is spreading across Europe. Although H3N2 is the dominant influenza A serotype in Europe, H1N1 is widespread and at or near 100% Tamiflu resistant.
The UK week 2 report indicted 39/40 H1N1 isolates had H274Y. Thus, at least 12 H1N1 isolates in the EISS report are in countries outside of the UK, and all such isolates are resistant. The above list includes Spain and Italy as countries testing for antiviral resistance, so if the testing included H1N1, resistance would have been confirmed in those countries.
It is likely that all or most H1N1 in Europe will be resistant because the only sensitive isolate in the UK was among the first 10 tested, so all of the most recent 30 isolates in the UK are resistant. Similarly, all 23 of H1N1 isolates tested in Canada are also resistant, and the level is close to 100% in the United States, South Korea, and Japan.
Therefore, because all of the northern hemisphere countries have reported levels close to 100%, it is likely that other countries in Europe reporting H1N1 also have resistance. In the latest FluNet update, H1N1 has been confirmed in Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Estonia, Germany, Greece, Portugal, Russia, and Slovenia. Therefore it is likely that H274Y is present in all of these countries as well as other countries in Europe who have not submitted serotype data.
The provincial animal health department has provided more than nine tonnes of sterilizers for animal health workers at districts and communes across the province. Sterilisation will be a focus at poultry smuggling “hot spots” along the border such as Bao Lam, Coc Nam and Tu Mich.
Meanwhile, in Ho Chi Minh City, local authorities have uncovered more than 400 stores involved in the illegal trading of poultry products at 80 markets in 24 districts, particularly in districts 8, 12, Go Vap, Binh Tan, Tan Phu and Binh Chanh.
Local citizens consumed an average of 176 tonnes of frozen poultry products each day, reported the municipal animal health department. Since Jan. 5, food safety and hygiene inspectors have handled 136 cases of violations, seizing more than 1,400 live fowls and 41,000 eggs, said the department.
Free flu shots are a better option
With an epidemic of antibiotic-resistant infections growing, experts are warning grocery-store pharmacies that antibiotics giveaways are an unhealthy promotional gimmick. If grocery stores want to help customers and save them money during cold and flu season, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) says, they should offer free influenza vaccinations instead.
Giant, Stop & Shop, and other grocery stores have recently begun offering free antibiotics at their pharmacies. Most concerning are promotions such as Wegmans' that link antibiotics to the winter cold-and-flu season—despite the fact that antibiotics will have no effect on these viral illnesses and carry risks of serious side effects.
"While it may make good marketing sense, promoting antibiotics at a time when we are facing a crisis of antibiotic resistance does not make good public health sense," said IDSA President Anne Gershon, MD. "On the other hand, grocery stores would be doing a tremendous service if they help more people get their flu shots."
A new study in the February 1 issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases shows that workers age 50-64 who received influenza vaccine lost substantially fewer days of work and worked fewer days while ill. But influenza vaccine is underutilized. Millions of doses were thrown away at the end of the last two flu seasons.
"The opposite is true for antibiotics," said Lauri Hicks, DO, medical director for the "Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work" program at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). "Each year tens of millions of antibiotics are prescribed for viral conditions, like the common cold, for which antibiotics are totally ineffective. Overuse of antibiotics is jeopardizing the effectiveness of these essential drugs."
For example, in some parts of the country methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the leading cause of emergency room visits for skin and soft tissue infections. To make matters worse, there are very few new antibiotics under development to fight resistant bacteria.
In addition, the risks associated with antibiotics are under-appreciated. Allergic reactions and other adverse events cause an estimated 142,000 emergency room visits annually, according to a recent study by CDC.
"Most doctors know better than to prescribe antibiotics when they are not needed," Dr. Gershon added. "But many find it hard to say 'no' to sick patients who think antibiotics will make them feel better. We are concerned that these pharmacy marketing efforts will encourage patients to ask for antibiotics prescriptions."
IDSA urges grocery store pharmacies to partner with the CDC's "Get Smart" program. CDC and its partners educate the public and health care providers about when antibiotics will and won't work and the dangers of antibiotic resistance. For more information, see the Get Smart website.
"Lowering customers' health care costs is an admirable goal," Dr. Gershon said. "But singling out antibiotics for promotion when we are facing a crisis of antibiotic resistance is the wrong way to do it. On the other hand, free influenza vaccinations could make a real contribution to public health."
The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) is an organization of physicians, scientists, and other health care professionals dedicated to promoting health through excellence in infectious diseases research, education, prevention, and patient care. The Society, which has more than 8,600 members, was founded in 1963 and is based in Arlington, VA. For more information, visit www.idsociety.org.
MANILA (AFP)--Blood samples from swine and farmhands in the Philippines have been sent to the Centers for Disease Control in the U.S. to test for the Ebola-Reston virus, Health Secretary Francisco Duque said Friday. The samples were collected by a joint team from the Food and Agriculture Organisation, the World Organisation for Animal Health and the World Health Organistion from two pig farms where the Ebola-Reston virus had been detected.
Cloppenburg / Friesoythe - Because of a new bird flu case in a turkey stock in Friesoythe in the northwest German state of Lower Saxony has the Landkreis Cloppenburg more nearly 38,000 animals killed.
The stock had infected 14,700 turkeys included, informed the district on Thursday. There was the danger for humans H5N3 virus has been detected. In addition would total 23,000 animals from two farms in a neighboring town, which had to die precautionary reasons.
The circle was directed around the affected farms Sperrgebiet a new one. Since December, the virus in 29 stocks have been demonstrated. A total of around 500,000 turkeys killed. (APA / dpa)
Government officials said the quarantine order of the two hog farms where the Ebola Reston virus was found last year remains until laboratory results from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia confirm that there is no threat to human and animal health.
Last week, a joint mission composed of experts in human and animal health belonging to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), the World Health Organization (WHO) and their national counterparts arrived in the two farms to conduct an investigation on the Ebola Reston virus (ERV) in pigs in the Philippines.
The first discovery of ERV in the Philippines was in 1989 when exported monkeys to the US and Italy were found to have the virus, World Health Organization (WHO) records indicate.
Department of Health (DoH) secretary Francisco T. Duque III said ERV is found only among Philippine monkeys. This is the first time the virus has been seen among swine, Duque said.
The team of experts conducted risk assessment, field investigations and collection of samples in the two affected pig farms in Pandi, Bulacan and another in Manaoag, Pangasinan.
Duque said result of the laboratory test is due in the next few weeks.
The joint mission also conducted an assessment test on the laboratory capability of the Research Institute on Tropical Medicine (RITM) and the Bureau of Animal Industry (BAI). Duque said the team of experts has committed 'to help capacitate these laboratories in improving diagnostic proficiency and bio-safety standards for detecting and managing similar Zoonotic (animal) diseases.
Meanwhile, in a joint statement with the DoH, Agriculture secretary Arthur Yap said he has also ordered the continued voluntary export ban of raw and processed swine products which began last December.
"We decided to keep the farms in quarantine and suspend the export of our hogs until we have a better grasp of the extent, nature and consequences of the Reston virus to the health of animals and humans," Yap explained.
"I have ordered the Bureau of Animal Industry (BAI) to strengthen the routine monitoring functions of all existing veterinary quarantine check points to ensure that only healthy pigs are sold for slaughter. The National Meat Inspection Service (NMIS) was also instructed to reinforce its efforts in safeguarding meat entering markets," he added.
The government has also vowed to review food safety protocols for the improvement of that will ensure that food is safe from farm to plate.
Duque and Yap again reminded the public to purchase meat that has been approved by the National Meat Inspection Service (NMIS) so they can be assured that is has been properly inspected and declared safe to eat by experts.
KATHMANDU, Jan 16 (Reuters) - Nepal said on Friday it had found the H5N1 bird flu in poultry, the first time the deadly virus has surfaced in the Himalayan nation, prompting culling operations in the country's southeast.
"The virus has been found in chicken and ducks. We have confirmed it is H5N1 virus," Agriculture Minister Jai Prakash Prasad Gupta told Reuters.
Bird flu was reported in poultry from the crowded southeast Nepal town of Kakarvitta, bordering India, officials said.
"We have declared that area crisis-hit," said Krishna Bahadur Mahara, minister for communication and information.
The epicentre of the outbreak is close to India's West Bengal state which has been fighting to contain intermittent outbreaks of the virus in poultry since last year.
Hari Dahal, a Nepalese agriculture ministry spokesman, said no bird flu symptoms had been noticed among people in the affected area.
Veterinary workers were sent to the region on Friday to cull poultry to try to control the virus within a 3 km (1.8 miles) radius of the town.
"They have started killing all birds in the area," Gupta said. "Since the outbreak in India, we were already alert."
Officials said they sent seven dead birds for testing in a laboratory in London after dozens died mysteriously in Kakarvitta about a week back.
"We got the confirmation today and are now seeking international help to fight the outbreak," Gupta added.
Neighbouring India has culled millions of chicken and ducks to contain the virus since its first outbreak in 2006, but has reported no human infections.
VietNamNet Bridge – HCMC’s Department of Health will launch inspections of food hygiene and poultry trading at the city’s wholesale markets in the lead up to Lunar New Year holidays, or Tet, said deputy director Le Truong Giang.
He said, “The inspections are aimed at raising awareness of possible bird flu outbreaks and prevent food poisoning in the Lunar New Year.”
Along with the inspections, Giang added, the department has ordered all hospitals to store Tamiflu, a drug used for treatment of bird flu patients, and prepare isolation areas for those inspect with the H5N1 strain of the bird flu virus.
The HCMC government has recently signed a decision tightening the monitoring of bird flu and of poultry transportation which is traditionally active ahead of Tet.
Under the decision, the relevant agencies, including the Animal Health Department, market monitors and the health department must tighten their coordination to keep a close watch of the disease and the transportation of poultry into the city from the affected areas.
Market monitoring forces must join hands with animal health workers to supervise the trading and transportation of poultry at markets in a number of districts including Binh Chanh, Binh Tan, 4 and 7, according to the decision.
The city has ordered the establishment of inspection teams to check poultry transportation by water in districts 4, 7 and Can Gio. One more team will be set up to monitor border areas in Long An.
The health department said the city now had over 400 areas where the trading and transportation of poultry was active, mainly in districts Binh Chanh, 8, 12, 3, and 2.
According to the department, it is now difficult to check the rampant trading and transportation of unquarantined poultry.
The National Department for Animal Health said no new outbreaks had been detected since early this year and that Thanh Hoa and Thai Nguyen were the only two provinces still affected by bird flu at the moment.
Lang Son Province’s Animal Health Department reported on Monday that they had detected the H5N1 virus in domestic birds smuggled in from China after they took 16 samples for testing.
Lang Son has set up five inspection teams to control the spread of the disease and prevent the smuggling of poultry from China to Vietnam.
16 Jan 2009, 1407 hrs IST, PTI
KATHMANDU: Nepal has detected its first bird flu case of the season in a district bordering India, a Cabinet meeting chaired by Prime Minister Prachanda said on Friday.
The bird flu virus was detected in samples from an eastern Nepalese Mechinagar municipality bordering India.
The cabinet meeting officially confirmed that bird flu was found in Ward No 10 of the municipality, according to cabinet sources.
The government has directed the concerned authorities to immediately take measures to confine and control bird flu, Minister for Science and Technology Ganesh Shah said.
After bird flu was tested in birds in the eastern Nepal municipality near Kakarbhitta, Nepal government has decided to send "rapid group" to the area to take necessary measures as per international standard, he said.
The rapid group is a team of experts and quarantine officials that would take all necessary steps to prevent spreading of the disease.
The government has directed the authorities to isolate the area from other areas and to quell all the birds found within three kilometre radius of the place so that the virus could not spread to other areas.
Nepal has earlier, banned import of birds and poultry products as the bird flu was found in various districts of India bordering Nepal.
Thursday, January 15, 2009
Date: 14 Jan 2009
Rapport_complet (pdf * format - 70.3 Kbytes)
1. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SITUATION
The epidemiological situation, to date, is as follows:
- New cases: 0; new deaths: 0.
- Total number of suspected cases: 47 including 34 female, 17 suspected cases are under the age of 15 years, 30 were aged 15 and over.
- Total number of deaths: 14, CFR: 30%.
- Residence of patients: 35 to Kaluamba 1 to Mweka, 1 Nsungi Munene, 2 Kabao, 6 and 1 to Kampungu Bakatombi and 1 Mwanyika.
- Total number of contacts under surveillance: 155, all were seen today by the monitoring teams.
- Number of patients currently in isolation: 4.
- Investigations into suspected cases reported in Kinshasa are continuing and charges were made.
LAST week, an international team of human and animal health experts arrived in Manila to conduct an epidemiological study relative to the reemergence of the Ebola Reston virus in local swine.
The 10-day investigation now being conducted by a team from the World Health Organization, Office International des Epizootes and the Food and Agriculture Organization was in response to a call by Secretary Arthur Yap of the Department of Agriculture for these experts to help the Philippines craft a national surveillance plan as well as a diagnostics and disease prevention program to beat this virus for good.***
The Ebola Reston virus was detected late last year in a few hogs in Bulacan and Pangasinan. The Department of Agriculture and the Department of Health won praise from international experts and local industry leaders last December for what Dr. Soe Nyunt-U, the WHO country representative in the Philippines, had described as the Arroyo government’s "appropriate action" in dealing with this animal health risk.
A potential health crisis was nipped in the bud owing to the swift and decisive measures taken by the DA in response to the reemergence of the virus, which first surfaced in the world in 1989 in the Ferlite monkey farm in Calamba, Laguna.
*** Secretary Yap had ordered the quarantine of the farms in Pangasinan and Bulacan where the virus was detected. He directed the Bureau of Animal Industry to closely monitor the movement of hogs and pork meat by setting up hog checkpoints.
He also instructed the National Meat Inspection Service to check for the presence of any contaminated pork meat in the market and slaughterhouses and to strict in the issuance of health certifications on animal shipments.
As an extra precautionary measure, Yap also ordered the temporary suspension of the country’s first-ever pork export to Singapore until such time that the Reston problem has been fully checked.
The BAI has also requested the FAO for assistance in testing 10,000 heads of domestic swine for the possible presence of the virus and to determine the source of the infection.
US Department of Health and Human Services Awards Novartis $486 Million Contract to Build Manufacturing Facility for Pandemic Flu Vaccine
Holly Springs, North Carolina site will have capacity to provide 150 million doses of pandemic vaccine within six months of declaration of influenza pandemic
Novartis novel cell-based manufacturing technology vital alternative to traditional egg-based vaccines production
Commercial production of pre-pandemic and seasonal flu vaccines planned after completion in 2012
Plant to provide 300 highly skilled jobs at opening
BASEL, Switzerland, January 15, 2009 -- Novartis announced today that the US Department of Health and Human Services, Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (HHS, BARDA) has awarded Novartis Vaccines a contract for up to USD 486 million over eight years to support the design, construction, validation, and licensing of U.S. cell-based influenza vaccine manufacturing facilities in Holly Springs, North Carolina, to provide a pre-pandemic supply of influenza vaccine and to provide the capacity to manufacture 150 million doses of pandemic vaccine within six months of declaration of an influenza pandemic.
"I am delighted that Novartis Vaccines' facilities in Holly Springs will be able to support the US Government's ability to respond quickly to a potential pandemic, as well as contribute to America's vaccine infrastructure for seasonal flu," said Dr. Joerg Reinhardt, Chief Operating Officer of Novartis. "We believe that this contract award underscores the US Government's commitment to ensure pandemic vaccine supply, and reflects their confidence in Novartis."
A major advantage of Holly Springs' future influenza cell culture production is that it will not rely on the availability of eggs. Avian influenza virus is currently considered the most likely source of the next pandemic - and it is lethal to both chickens and their eggs. Without eggs, traditional influenza manufacturing techniques cannot produce vaccines, so the Holly Springs flu cell culture production capabilities would be a vital alternative.
"This HHS contract builds on the strategic investment made by Novartis in vaccines innovation, and reinforces the significant financial and technology investments we have already committed to Holly Springs," added Dr. Andrin Oswald, CEO of Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics. "We currently anticipate that by 2012 the site will provide jobs for more than 300 highly skilled people with the capability to produce cell-based seasonal flu vaccine, pre-pandemic vaccine and 150 million doses of pandemic vaccine within six months of the declaration of an influenza pandemic."
Under the contract, Novartis is responsible for, among other things, pre-construction document development, land use and zoning, construction, commissioning, validation and licensing of the facilities (which are already under construction in Holly Springs, North Carolina), with the goals of regulatory licensure, manufacture and release of seasonal and pre-pandemic vaccine, as well as provision for pandemic vaccine supply in the event of a pandemic. The contract also requires Novartis to provide two commercial-scale annual lots of pre-pandemic vaccine for a minimum of three years. In addition, HHS has the right to exercise options to purchase additional influenza vaccine over 17 years.
Influenza is a contagious, potentially serious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses that attack the upper respiratory tract. It can cause mild to severe illness, and can lead to death. Influenza viruses easily spread from person to person in respiratory droplets created by coughing and sneezing. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), every year an estimated 3 to 5 million people worldwide become seriously ill from influenza, and as many as 500,000 - primarily children and the elderly - die from ensuing complications. A recent study conducted by researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) concluded that, in the US alone, the total economic burden (including direct medical costs, lost wages and impacts on productivity) imposed by such epidemics averages somewhere in the neighborhood of USD 87 billion every year.
About pandemic influenza
Pandemic influenza occurs when a new influenza virus emerges that causes serious illness and is easily transmitted among humans. In this situation, the virus can result in a worldwide outbreak of disease, or pandemic. Pandemic influenza occurred three times in the last century. Avian influenza, or "bird flu," does not normally infect humans, but recent outbreaks of H5N1 avian influenza have resulted in hundreds of human cases, with a mortality rate of more than 50%. Billions of birds have been destroyed in an effort to contain the virus, which is now considered endemic in parts of Asia.
Cloppenburg, Germany - Around half a million turkeys have been culled since December in a bird flu outbreak sweeping an area of northern Germany, officials said Thursday.
Some 38,000 birds were killed this week on three farms near the town of Cloppenburg, about 100 kilometres south of Hamburg.
Some 14,700 of the birds were infected with the H5N3 strain, which is not harmful to humans. The others were put to death as a precaution.
Officials set up an exclusion zone around the affected farms.
Source: The Times online, Agence Franc-Presse report [edited]
Seven more people have tested positive [by laboratory testing] for the
deadly Ebola virus in the Democratic Republic of the Congo [Congo DR],
bringing the toll of suspected and confirmed cases to 46, according to the
medical group Medecins sans Frontieres [Doctors without Borders].
14 people have died, all exhibiting symptoms of the hemorrhagic fever, but
only one of the deaths has been confirmed [by laboratory analysis] as
resulting directly from Ebola virus infection. The deaths were all in
western Kasai [Kasai Occidental province], a remote province where about
187 people died of Ebola fever last year .
Ebola kills up to 90 per cent of the people it infects and is spread
through direct contact with blood and secretions, or via contaminated objects.
On Tue 6 Jan 2009, neighbouring Angola shut down its north eastern border
with the Democratic Republic of the Congo in a bid to stop the spread of
the deadly Ebola virus.
HealthMap Alerts via
[As reported in the previous report from the Democratic Republic of the
Congo, the number of laboratory confirmed cases of Ebola hemorrhagic fever
remains at 7. The total of confirmed and suspected cases has risen to 46.
There have been 14 deaths of patients exhibiting signs and symptoms of
Ebola hemorrhagic fever, but only one of these fatalities has been
confirmed by laboratory analysis. There is a continuing suspicion that the
outbreak may be more complex and involve more than a single etiological agent.
A map of the Democratic Republic of the Congo can be accessed at
<http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/africa/congo_demrep_pol98.jpg>, and the
HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map is available at
<http://healthmap.org/promed/en?g=214139&v=-4.5,22,5>. The location of
Mweka District (the site of the outbreak) can be found at
by downloading the pdf file of the ICRF report at
For Immediate Release: January 9, 2009
Contact: CDC Division of Media Relations, Phone: (404) 639-3286
On December 19, 2008, CDC issued interim guidance for health care professionals on the use of influenza antiviral medications this flu season. The guidance was issued in response to early data from a limited number of states indicating that a high proportion of influenza A (H1N1) viruses are resistant to the influenza antiviral medication oseltamivir (Tamiflu®). Worldwide, the proportion of H1N1 viruses that are resistant to oseltamivir has been increasing so this development is not surprising.
Recent media reports may have led some to believe that these developments mean physicians are without influenza treatment options for the 2008-2009 flu season.
At this time, it’s not possible to predict how common H1N1 viruses will be during the rest of this flu season, as there are many different flu viruses and every influenza season is different. The current samples studied come from a handful of states, and may not be indicative of how the rest of the season will progress or what viruses will circulate in other states. However the circulation of oseltamivir-resistant viruses does have treatment implications for health care professionals. CDC is continuing to monitor this situation very closely, but has issued interim guidance for health care professionals to guide their treatment decisions in the current situation.
In fact, the interim CDC guidance provides advice for clinicians on how to treat patients with influenza antiviral medications this season. Clinicians can use influenza test results and information, if available, about which viruses are circulating, to help decide which antiviral(s) should be used. If H1N1 viruses are circulating in the community, or it’s not clear which viruses are circulating, health care providers are recommended to use an alternative antiviral, zanamivir (Relenza®), or to use combination therapy of oseltamivir and rimantadine. Use of zanamivir or dual therapy with oseltamivir and rimantadine would provide effective treatment against all circulating influenza viruses. In some instances, oseltamivir alone can still be used, such as when influenza B is diagnosed, or H1N1 viruses are not circulating.
It is important to remember that CDC recommends annual influenza vaccination as the first and best step in preventing the flu. It is not too late to get vaccinated and this year′s influenza vaccine is expected to be effective against currently circulating oseltamivir-resistant influenza A (H1N1) viruses.
- Summary of December 19, 2008 Guidance
- Full Text of Guidance:
- Podcast on Influenza Antiviral Resistance and Interim Guidance:
- Flu activity and surveillance:
- Downloadable high-resolution flu image:
- Flu references and resources: