Saturday, August 11, 2012

Indonesia: Latest Birdflu Victim Source of Virus


[It appears that the latest H5N1 casualty lived near a poultry farm)
August 11, 2012

Page Ministry of Health reported a male suspect had died of bird flu. This adds to the long list of deaths from this disease in 2012 to nine people.

"The deceased was a self-employed 37 year-old male," the report said on Saturday (11/8).

Mentioned, he was hospitalized on July 24 due to high fever and was placed on a ventilator five days later. He died on July 30.

Authorities do not know how he contracted the virus, but suspected of contracting the virus because the victims are located near poultry farms.

Friday, August 10, 2012

Vietnam: Do not leave yet quarantined poultry in areas

BLC) - It is the main content of Document No. 922/UBND - NN on strengthening the prevention of avian influenza, the provincial People's Committee has just issued.

Currently avian influenza are complicated in the country, so the Chairman asked:

Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) coordinating the Department of Information and Communications, Broadcasting - Television province, News Feed, the departments concerned and people's committees of districts, towns increased Consolidate the propaganda campaigns for people and raising awareness, this is enough about the dangers of avian influenza.

Fully implemented, serious measures against the people in the right direction of MARD; strengthen checks and promptly detect and advise the PPC guidance and handle when outbreaks occur. Farmers are responsible for implementing measures to prevent and combat epidemics in the direction of civil authorities and to strictly professional job destruction when infected poultry outbreak in the province.

DARD director responsible to the Chairman in guiding and directing the deployment of measures to prevent, fight, handle zoning prevent disease in the province. Chairman of the district, town and actively using the industrial source of funding for agriculture economy and other legal sources of funds to deploy prevention; responsible to the Chairman of the measures implemented , husband, zoning prevent disease treatment in the district towns.

Chairman of the district: Sin Ho, Phong Tho, Muong Te direct administration of the communes and villages (a) propaganda, people committed to campaign opt shipping and trade birds of unknown origin, not through quarantine to coordinate with other agencies to strengthen inspection and control of trade, transport, import poultry and poultry products across borders, especially through the country quota shall be firmly decided to strictly handle all violations and exhibit in accordance with the law, not necessarily to poultry less than import quarantine in the province; responsible to Chairman referred to avian influenza occurred in areas under fierce fire in the deployment direction and negligence in the management.

DARD direct the Department of Animal Health, Department of Trade and Industry directed the Department of Management market and recommend Command Border Guard Army, Provincial Police, Customs Department gate Ma Lu Thang measures specific test, strictly control the sale and transportation of poultry and poultry products, was determined not to poultry and poultry products may be quarantined, unknown origin transported into the area consumption or transportation move consumption in other provinces.

China: Bird Flu Drill


August 7, the Qing Town, carried out in Italian Kwai Wu Village simulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza prevention and control of emergency drills and enhance emergency response capabilities of the major animal epidemic.

The town of veterinary station received a blockade so that immediately after the blockade, the affected area to check and disinfection of vehicles out of infected areas by staff of the Organization. Detection of outbreaks of chicken farms and three kilometers around the farms of chickens culled, and the harmless disposal. At the same time, the epidemic affected areas according to highly pathogenic avian influenza prevention and control specification strict disinfection measures.

The town of veterinary station expressed the hope that such drills to enhance the veterinary station staff on the major animal disease prevention and control capacity to achieve rapid response to ensure that in the case of sudden outbreak calmly and properly disposed of.

Vietnam: Health departments to ascertain, curb possible spread of H5N1 virus


Aug 10, 2012

Nguyen Van Binh, head of Department of Preventive Health, said that municipal and provincial departments of health across the country have been ordered to do a thorough study of old cases of outbreaks of diseases, so as to ascertain and curb the possible spread of H5N1 virus.

A health worker is sanitizing the environment in a farming households

Medical workers, especially those at border gates, have been advised to keep a close watch on patients suspected of having contracted the H5N1 strain, by placing them in quarantine and isolation wards in hospitals.

Binh asked people to inform the local governments about diseased and dead poultry in their district, and avoid eating sick foul or transport and sell poultry without clear indications of origin.

The quick spread of the bird flu virus has worried local authorities and caused concern among poultry breeders.

The Steering Board of Avian Flu Prevention announced that the northern provinces of Hai Phong and Hai Duong; the central provinces of Quang Binh and Ha Tinh are being plagued by bird flu.

More worrisome is the risk of the disease spreading because of current weather conditions which are favorable for spread of the virus and lax management of poultry trade and sale in the bordering districts with China where tons of sick chickens are illegally brought into the country.

Bird flu has spread to a duck farm in the central province of Quang Tri, affecting 4,890 poultry, bringing the total of H5N1 infected areas to six communes in Vinh Linh, Trieu Phong Districts and Quang Tri Town.

The Department of Animal Health in Quang Tri Province has provided more than 300,000 vaccine dozes and 5,000 kilograms of disinfectants to localities, to sanitize the environment.

Indonesia: Human #Birdflu Case report 191 #H5N1

AUGUST 9, 2012

Ministry of Health through the Directorate General of Disease Control and Environmental Health announced a new case of H5N1 have been confirmed by the Center for Biomedical and Health Technology base, Balitbangkes.

Case on behalf of AW (Female, 37 years) who Prambanan, Sleman District, Provinsi Yogyakarta, is a self-employed. Dated July 24, 2012 symptoms of high fever, the following day case treatment to a hospital outpatient PR.Because of persistent high fever and started coughing case, dated July 27, 2012 the case went to the hospital again and finally treated PR. Care hospital in public relations, the more elevated fever accompanied by cough and shortness, so that on July 29, 2012 the case was referred to Hospital B and ventilator. Circumstances of the case gets worse and finally died on July 30, 2012 at 12:05 pm.

Epidemiological investigations have been carried into the homes of people and the environment by the Integrated Team Ministry of Health, the local Health Department, Animal Husbandry Department and Officer PDSR Kab.Sleman DIY province, the provincial Agriculture Department DIY, acquired risk factors, namely the possibility of contact with the environment in the workplace and ornamental birds around 50 meters from the house there are cases where the cuts of chicken, quail and duck farms and there is also the case in the home environment.

With the increase of these cases, the cumulative number of bird flu in Indonesia since 2005 until this news was broadcast on 191 cases with 159 deaths.

Director General of Disease Control and Environmental Health Yoga Aditama Prof.dr.Tjandra as thefocal point of the International Health Regulations (IHR) has been informed about the case to the WHO.

This information is published by the Center for Public Communication, Secretariat General of the Ministry of Health. For further information please contact via telephone: (021) 52907416-9, fax: (021) 52921669, Fast Response Response Centre (PTRC): 500-567 and 081 281 562 620 (sms), e-mail or contact @

Thursday, August 9, 2012

Indonesia: Variety of Health Messages from MOH

Minister of Health for the entire message on the current Board of Health Mudik Lebaran
The readiness muster in the activities of the Health Sector in Current Mudik 2012/1433H Lebaran in Jakarta (9/8), the Minister of Health, dr. Nafsiah Mboi, Sp.A, MPH pass on some special message to all ranks who served in the current health Lebaran 2012.
"Act in a professional manner and comply with all the technical procedures of medical and public health", said Minister of Health
Furthermore, the Minister of Health expects that the whole range of health may act in an inclusive way coordination, communication and kejasama closely with various sectors concerned. In addition, it also acted quickly and appropriately in an effort to save human lives and improved public health.
There is the occasion, Minister also reminded that the whole range of health must always comply with all existing rules, to avoid legal sanctions. [continued]

The current Ministry of Health on preparedness support Mudik Lebaran 2012

Minister explained that in 2011, the number of traffic accidents increased 31 percent compared to the year 2010, ie from the 3633 event (2010) to 4744 events (2011). Although the number of travelers who had died from accidents decreased 9 percent, from 853 people (2010) to 779 (2011).
"In addition to accidents, traveling back and forth also at risk of food poisoning, diarrhea, acute respiratory infections (ARI) and other infectious diseases. Additionally, be aware of certain disease recurrence during the trip, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and asthma. Another thing to watch is a crime ", said Minister of Health.

Minister of Health emphasized that the current support from the Ministry of Health in 2012 Lebaran M/1433 H aims to provide health care to prevent the risk of morbidity, disability, death, and preventing disease risk factors, one of them through institutional capacity building in areas including health and emergency referral services.

Minister of Health Messages for the travelers Lebaran 2012
Facing the current Lebaran, the travelers are encouraged to make proper preparation and anticipation of risks that could come to threaten, especially the health risks, accidents and deaths.
To all travelers, Minister advocated for a health check before traveling in order to remain physically fit. In addition, prepared foods and drinks that clean and healthy enough and get enough rest while traveling.
This was conveyed by Minister of Health, dr. Nafsiah Mboi, Sp.A, MPH, on the activities of the Health Sector Preparedness Preparedness Apples Mudik Flows on page 2012/1433H Lebaran year the Ministry of Health, Jakarta (9/8).
Minister also reminded the travelers to stay clean da healthy life behavior (PHBs) in transit, for example, always wash hands with soap (CTPS) before eating / drinking, no littering, do not urinate / arbitrarily large, do not spit at random, not smoking in public places, and use masks to protect themselves from dust, smoke and pollution. [continued]

Healthy Bulletin - Special RS


Buletin Sehat – RS Bergerak

Indonesia: Bird Flu Vaccine Facility Suspected In Drag TPS Procurement

JAKARTA, (PRLM.) - Police Criminal Investigation Agency helped establish a suspect in the case of procurement of construction equipment research and production facilities expert bird flu vaccine production technology in fiscal year 2008-2010 the Ministry of Health. The suspect was identified as a polling station official commitments maker (PPK) of procurement activities.

Chief of Bureau of Public Information Brigadier General Boy Rafli Amar said, setting the polling stations also suspect echelon in the office of the Directorate General of two Ministry of Health is investigating the Police Criminal Investigation after receiving a report of the State Audit Board (BPK) in state losses have occurred in procurement activities.

Boy added, to avoid seizure by the case investigator Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK), it will coordinate.

"The truth is never scramble-scramble. So disparate. Perhaps the subject or object of his case is different, because these activities are only within a certain time, there are specific time periods, so the difference is in time. But the focus of a team Criminal investigators from the 2008-2010 period. Over the past three years, this multiyear project, "said the boy told reporters at Police Headquarters, Jakarta, Wednesday (08.08.12).

In the span of three years of that, said Boy, there is the possibility Commission conducted an investigation and the investigation. "Maybe it can be done outside, and the Commission can conduct the investigation in different years," he continued.

Boy added that if in the process of investigation by the Criminal investigators are also related to the investigation conducted by KPK, they will again coordinate the handling of cases like the SIM simulator in Korlantas Police.

Vietnam: The risk of bird flu spread to humans


Department of Preventive Medicine recommend provincial health departments to strengthen monitoring of the risk of bird flu spread to humans.

On 8/8, Dr. Nguyen Van Binh, Director of Preventive Medicine, Ministry of Health said the risk of avian influenza (Influenza A H5N1) spread and spread to humans, the Department of Preventive Medicine recommend provincial health departments to strengthen epidemiological surveillance in the old epidemic areas, especially for diagnosing influenza outbreak early detection, prompt treatment of isolated cases of disease, and limited number of infected and death.

For local borders, the Department of Preventive Medicine recommend strengthening the border medical quarantine, close inspection of passengers on entry from endemic areas, old epidemic areas, and coordinate this isolation not to treat epidemic invaded Vietnam. Strict inspection and supervision of poultry, imported food and transportation across the border.

Director Nguyen Van Binh warned people to immediately notify the authorities in case of detection of poultry, waterfowl sick, died. Limit contact and absolutely no meat, poultry, aquatic birds sick to avoid spreading the flu. Do not transport, sale of poultry, waterfowl and poultry products, aquatic birds of unknown origin.

Meanwhile, the National Steering Committee for Avian Influenza Prevention said the country has Hai Phong, Hai Duong, Ha Tinh and Quang Binh reported outbreaks of bird flu. More worryingly, bird flu is in danger of spreading, and new outbreaks of epidemics due to favorable weather conditions for the spread of viruses and the loose movement control of poultry in many provinces and the northern border , with tons of chicken waste from China are trafficked into our country every day.

By the morning 8/8, bird flu in Quang Tri was spread out 6 communes, wards of Vinh Linh, Trieu Phong and Quang Tri town with a dead bird and human destruction is 4890. Veterinary Department of Quang Tri province has 300,000 doses of vaccine for H5N1 strain NIBRG-14 to the local poultry vaccination; levels than 5.000kg chemicals of all kinds for disinfection and handling of the outbreak and disinfection after vaccination.

Vietnam: Alert Quang Binh: the risk of bird flu spread

As reported by the Veterinary Department of Quang Binh province, from 13/7, in the province of Quang Ninh and Le Thuy district bird flu appeared in a number of ducks.

Disinfectants, disinfection means the car went into service in Quang Ninh

Next is the local Bo Trach district, Quang Trach ... Since then, local and industry functions carried out stamping out enclosure and destroy sick poultry, implementing poultry vaccination. However, the service is in danger of spreading.

For those infected poultry, local governments and authorities quickly organized destruction in accordance with preventive procedures. As of today 7/8, the province has culled 35,000 birds (of which 31,000 ducks on the human, chicken, nearly 4,000 thousand). Also held for nearly 650,000 children vaccinated poultry on the 63 communes and townships of six districts.

According to veterinary offices, in Quang Ninh basic bird flu has been controlled and directed the district are local procedures followed to declare epidemic.However, in adjacent areas are Le Thuy district avian influenza situation goes on ... Specifically, 2 communes in China Trach Trach Complete (Trach district) has appeared on the chicken flu and Hung Quang (Quang Trach district) flu spread flock.

Pham Hong Son - The Director of Veterinary Quang Binh said: "On 1/8, some running at the same breeding flock in question, this Mexican (Hoa Thuy Commune); left untouched, the question (Social Security Cards - Le Thuy) is the phenomenon of illness died. The vaccination has been slow here, in these two communes, directed against the translation is not drastic. In addition, vaccination in Quang Trach district is also quite slow. "

Before the epidemic situation has tended complex, Nguyen Huu Hoai - The Chairman went to check the epidemic in some areas where there are epidemics.After examining the situation, he Hoai asked DARD to monitor the situation of avian influenza to take measures to encircle and destroy, not to control the epidemic. Veterinary Authority has accurately predicted vaccine to vaccinate all the Central Government for the province do not any good local, delay in the implementation of vaccination to severe criticism. The local service that has all it can do to declare epidemic procedure as prescribed.

Vietnam: Watch out for young drug seizures because of flu

10 minutes after taking cold mother, child seizures, limb convulsion, a good cold, shortness of breath.

Dr. Nguyen Thuy Lan, PRIVATE Children's Hospital, said the flu is respiratory disease caused by a virus, affecting the lining of the mouth, nose, throat and lungs. The main symptoms are sneezing, stuffy nose, headache, fever. The frequency of the disease occur frequently, many people should lead to mental illness this is simple, the court may order treatment.

Hospital emergency

According to Dr. Lan, the child has an emergency flu drug poisoning is not uncommon at Children's Hospital. There are cases when parents see the runny nose, fever, flu drug himself back to the drink. After taking 10 minutes, the child has a seizure, convulsion limbs, the cold better, trouble breathing. Emergency at the hospital said the new BS, parents have the child take cold medicines to 3, nearly the same composition but different names, so that children with lower doses of sudden temperature shock.

Earlier in July, Cho Ray Hospital (Ho Chi Minh City) also TVP emergency patients, 15 years old, a high school student in Dong Thap, anaphylaxis and allergic drug fever virus. According to his house, see P. high fever, chills, sore throat, runny nose, had to buy medicine pharmacy flu (do not remember the names) of the P. drinking. New drink 2 doses, P. difficulty breathing, the right to, cyanosis and all who come to emergency Instant speed.

Not to abuse

The flu medicines with specific drugs are being circulated on the market as Decolgen, rhumenol, medicoldac, decolsin ... are components acetaminophen (paracetamol) effective antipyretic, analgesic; Chlorpheniramine antihistamine effect , reducing the itching sensation in the nose and reduce sneezing; dextromethorphan thinning mucus, reduce cough. The combination of the above ingredients in the tablet rapidly relieves the symptoms of flu such as fever, headache, itching and sneezing, especially rapidly reduced symptoms of nasal congestion, runny nose makes patients feel very pleasant after medication. However, according to statistics at Bach Mai Hospital, the rate of paracetamol poisoning No. 2 (accounting for 12.2%) after food poisoning. Some drugs paracetamol combination with antihistamine antihistamine drugs often have several different specific names that confuse users coordinate to overdose.

The pediatrician is not recommended for children under 6 years cough and cold medicines contain antihistamines. Need to consult a physician if the drug problems in young children. In many cases, the disease cough, disappear in a few days without any medication. If the child only a little cough and mild fever, parents should monitor, protected from the wind to avoid the child has a cold. For adults, do not voluntarily purchase drugs to treat flu, need to see a doctor and inform the physician if there is a history of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, history of sensitivity to drugs. Especially not overdose because patients may suffer side effects such as lightheadedness, dizziness, irregular heartbeat, high blood pressure.

Vietnam: The bird flu has appeared in five northern provinces

According to the Veterinary Department, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, avian flu has hit the province of Ninh Binh. So far there were five provinces recurrence of avian influenza, Quang Binh and Ha Tinh and Hai Duong, Hai Phong and Ninh Binh.

Specifically, 27/7, avian influenza occurred in Rural Nho Hao, Yen Lin, Yen Mo District, Ninh Binh province 730 children infected poultry. Then, on 31/7, avian influenza continue to be found in Yen Son, Tam Diep town makes 985 sick ducks, dead ducks and destruction of 1282.

Soon after discovery, Veterinary Department in cooperation with local authorities to conduct the entire destruction of infected poultry.

Wednesday, August 8, 2012

Vietnam prepares for bird flu Vietnam prepares for bird flu

09 Aug 2012
Vietnam faces an increased risk of bird flu, brought on by the weather weakening poultry resistance. Some 29,700 birds have been destroyed in the latest swath of outbreaks of the influenza virus, taking place in the centre of the country.

Deputy Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development Diep Kinh Tan announced that with the prevailing weather there was a high risk of new bird flu outbreaks due to unfavourable conditions weakening the resistance of poultry.

He also stated that ineffective management of poultry transportation in border provinces was also contributing to the heightened risk.

During the past two weeks, bird flu has reappeared in Hai Phong City, with poultry infections numbering as high as 67,000, while the number in Ha Tinh Province was 17,000.

Bird flu outbreaks have so far been reported in the two cities of Hai Duong and Hai Phong, along with the provinces of Quang Binh and Ha Tinh.

More than three million doses of bird flu vaccine have been allocated to the localities and nearly 100,000 affected chicken, ducks and other birds have been destroyed.

Tan asked the localities and agencies to strictly implement the Prime Minister's directive last week requesting them to strengthen inspection and control of poultry imports to Viet Nam to prevent bird flu. [that would be across the China border...]

Latest outbreaks
The Director General of the department of Animal Health, Dr Nam Hoang Van, has submitted the latest report on HPAI to the OIE. Since the last report submitted in late July, six new outbreaks of H5N1 have occurred, though isolated to the centre of the country.

The outbreaks are taking place in rural villages, and to date some 29,753 birds have been destroyed.

Controlling transmission

To control transmission of the disease via illegal poultry imports, the PM asked border provinces to encourage local people not to take part in the transport and trade of unidentified and un-quarantined poultry.

Other ministries, including the ministries of Industry and Trade, Defence, Finance, Public Security, Agriculture and Rural Development, and Information and Communications, were asked to work together to deal with illegal imports of poultry, while strengthening inspections and popularising measures to prevent H5N1 human influenza and information relating to the fight against bird flu.

U.S. Minnesota - Virus is linked to deaths of hundreds of birds

  • Article by: MARIA ELENA BACA
  • Star Tribune
  • August 7, 2012 - 9:05 PM

Hundreds of cormorants, pelicans, gulls, herons and egrets are dead on two lakes in west-central and southern Minnesota, most likely the result of a virus that strikes wild birds every other summer.

Following a tip from Ontario, Department of Natural Resources officials began investigating Minnesota lakes; they discovered carcasses and obviously ill birds at Pigeon Lake, near Litchfield, and Minnesota Lake, southeast of Mankato, said Erika Butler, a DNR wildlife veterinarian. Test results are pending, but DNR officials believe the cause is Newcastle disease, a virus that is spread by droppings and body fluids. Butler described "stereotypical presentation" among diseased birds, including paralysis, drooping heads and the inability to walk or swim. Diseased birds were being euthanized; other carcasses were being quickly cleared and incinerated to prevent the spread.

As of last week, DNR officials had discovered 700 cormorants, 100 pelicans and smaller numbers of the other birds dead and diseased at Pigeon Lake. The toll amounted to fewer than 100 at Minnesota Lake.

Butler noted that the dead birds tested negative for avian influenza.


Bird die-offs also have been reported this summer on Leech Lake, Lake Vermilion and the Canadian side of Rainy Lake. Test results are pending in those cases also. In 2008 and 2010, several thousand birds died in Newcastle outbreaks across the state. A 1992 outbreak killed 35,000 double-crested cormorants across the Great Lakes, Upper Midwest and Canada, according to the DNR.

The disease rarely spreads to humans, the DNR statement said. Symptoms in humans can include conjunctivitis, a mild inflammation of the inner eyelids also known as pink eye. It can spread to domesticated flocks; owners should block wild birds from their chicken pens and monitor them for illness.


U.S.: Newcastle Disease suspected in Minn. Bird Die-Offs

ST. PAUL, Minn. (AP) - A virus suspected to be Newcastle disease has killed hundreds of birds on Pigeon Lake in west-central Minnesota and on Minnesota Lake in southern Minnesota, the Department of Natural Resources said Tuesday.

Around 700 double-breasted cormorants, 100 pelicans and some gulls, herons and egrets had been found sick and dead as of last week at Pigeon Lake, near Litchfield, while fewer than 100 birds were affected at Minnesota Lake, in Faribault County. DNR wildlife veterinarian Erika Butler said final lab results are expected later this month, but tests have ruled out avian influenza, also known as bird flu.

Other bird die-offs have been reported this summer on Leech Lake and Lake Vermilion in northern Minnesota and the Canadian side of Rainy Lake. Test results on those birds are also expected in two or three weeks, Butler said.

[continued - click on title for full article]

8 million chickens killed amid Mexico bird flu outbreak

August 8, 2012

Eight million chickens have been slaughtered in Mexico and another 66 million have been vaccinated in an ongoing effort to contain a bird flu outbreak that began in June in the western state of Jalisco.


The western state of Jalisco produces around 11 percent of the country's poultry meat and 50 percent of its eggs, Reuters reported in July.

At that time, officials told Reuters aid there was no risk of infection in humans from eating chicken.

The virus responsible for the outbreak, H7N3, has occasionally caused human disease in some parts of the world, but is not easily transmittable between humans, AFP said.

Health officials have been on alert for new viruses in Mexico since the 2009 outbreak of H1N1 virus, known as "swine flu" that shut down the capital city for several days when it was detected in humans, Reuters reported.

The antigenic property of the H5N1 avian influenza viruses isolated in central China

These are excerpts from the full PDF File:

The H5N1 AIVs continuously outbreak in East Asia countries after 2005 and form a new
phylogenetic clade, gaining some new characterizations, such as neurovirulence and the
ability to infect poultry and migratory birds [7,9]. Meanwhile, most of the subsequent viruses
isolated from the infected human in China prove to be clade 2.3
[10]. H5N1 HPAIVs cause a
constant increase of human infection cases and nearly 60% of the infected people die


Meanwhile, H5N1 HPAIVs are raging all over the world in poultry as well as
migrated birds and putting significant threat to human health and poultry breading.
Further analysis reveal that the HA gene of these viruses belong to Clade 2.3. The properties
of the sequences, virulence and even the transmission property of the viruses in this clade are
investigated profoundly in many reports [7,11-15]. Wu show that viruses isolated from
2002 to 2007 have formed four distinct antigenic groups, and imply that a major antigenic
drift might happen in the viruses isolated after 2005 (clade 2.3) [16]. But the antigenicity of
the viruses in this clade is not fully studied. Investigation about the antigenicity of H5N1
AIVs isolated in different time and geographical areas after 2005 is beneficial to clarifying
the changed biological properties of the emerged viruses.

In the present study, combining the HI and the NT activity of the Mabs to the 10 selected
viruses isolated in central China, we conclude that a significant antigenic drift have occurred
in the viruses isolated in the two periods.
To reveal the molecular mechanism of the antigenic
change, phylogenic analysis is performed and displays that HA genes of the viruses isolated
in two periods obviously locate in different branches. The deduced amino acids demonstrate
that the 53 substitutions in the HA protein of the 10 viruses are divided into four patterns. The
pattern 1 mutations are only observed in virus xfy/04, the same sites in other 9 viruses are
identical. Our previous study had demonstrated that the virus xfy/04 showed low
pathogenicity in mice, chickens and pigeons, while the other 9 viruses showed high
pathogenicity in animal experiments or in field [7,17]. Therefore, pattern 1 mutations might
be related to the low pathogenicity of virus xfy/04.

The amino acids in pattern 3 mutations are different in viruses isolated in 2004 and 2006–
2007, indicating that this pattern mutation might happen from 2005 to 2006. However, the
mutations in pattern 2 are only observed in the viruses isolated in 2007, indicating that this
pattern mutation might happen from 2006 to 2007. This information reveals that the
antigenicity of H5N1 AIV is constantly changing in the process of spread.

On the other hand, viruses isolated in 2006 (hm/06 and d16/06) belong to clade 2.3.4, while viruses isolated in
2007 (xn/07, zg/07 and xg/07) belong to clade 2.3.2. Meanwhile, viruses in clade 2.3.2 have
gradually replaced the viruses in clade 2.3.4 in these years and become the most prevalent
viruses in China. This might suggest that viruses undergoing antigenicity alteration have a
great advantage in prevalence and spread.

The present study reveals that the antigenic epitopes of the HA protein have changed in the
prevalent AIVs in central China. The mutations in pattern 2 and 3 might be responsible for
the differences of HI and NT activity and the distinct antigenic features of the viruses isolated
in the two periods. Particularly, most mutations in pattern 2 and 3 locate in the globular head
and distribute at the five epitope sites, and even represent the trend of antigenic drift in 2004–
2007. This phenomenon might demonstrate that those sites actually expose to the selected
pressure and easily cause antigenic drift. Generally, the H5N1 AIVs are undergoing further
antigenic drift and persistent monitoring the epidemiology and antigenic evolution of H5N1
AIV is imperative.

The antigenic property of the H5N1 avian influenza viruses isolated in central China

Virology Journal 2012, 9:148 doi:10.1186/1743-422X-9-148

Published: 6 August 2012

Wei Zou, Jianjiang Ke, Jiping Zhu, Hongbo Zhou and Meilin Jin


Three influenza pandemics outbroke in the last century accompanied the viral antigen shift and drift, resulting in the change of antigenic property and the low cross protective ability of the existed antibody to the newly emerged pandemic virus, and eventually the death of millions of people. The antigenic characterizations of the viruses isolated in central China in 2004 and 2006-2007 were investigated in the present study.


Hemagglutinin inhibition assay and neutralization assay displayed differential antigenic characteristics of the viruses isolated in central China in two periods (2004 and 2006-2007). HA genes of the viruses mainly located in two branches in phylogeny analysis. 53 mutations of the deduced amino acids of the HA genes were divided into 4 patterns. Mutations in pattern 2 and 3 showed the main difference between viruses isolated in 2004 and 2006-2007. Meanwhile, most amino acids in pattern 2 and 3 located in the globular head of the HA protein, and some of the mutations evenly distributed at the epitope sites.


The study demonstrated that a major antigenic drift had occurred in the viruses isolated in central China. And monitoring the antigenic property should be the priority in preventing the potential pandemic of H5N1 avian influenza virus.

Two pharmacy chains begin offering vaccine for new flu season

August 7, 2012

Two pharmacy chains—RiteAid and Walgreens—yesterday announced that flu shots for the upcoming season are now available in their stores. The development follows recent announcements that four of five vaccine makers had begun shipping their first doses for the US market. Companies have said they expect to produce up to 149 million doses of flu vaccine for the 2012-13 flu season. RiteAid said in its press release that customers can receive flu vaccine at any of its 4,600 stores during pharmacy hours without an appointment. Walgreens said that the vaccine is available at its nearly 8,000 stores, including Duane Reade pharmacies in New York, as well as at more than 360 Take Care Clinics at select Walgreens stores. Robert Thompson, RiteAid's executive vice president of pharmacy, said in the statement that although it's hard to predict how any flu season will unfold, getting immunized as soon as the vaccine is available is the best protection strategy.
Aug 6 RiteAid press release
Aug 6 Walgreens press release

Study: Sandy rice-field soil in Cambodia may inhibit H5N1 spread

August 7, 2012
CIDRAP: Certain soil types contaminated with H5N1 avian flu viruses led to chicken deaths when added to their houses, but sandy topsoil collected from area rice fields seemed to resist that pathogen, a Cambodian study in Emerging Infectious Diseases yesterday revealed. Investigators studied sandy topsoil collected from around rice fields in Phnom Penh province, as well as building sand and soil-based compost from a local tree nursery. They contaminated each soil type with low doses of H5N1 (1 infectious unit on day 0, 2 on day 6, 4 on day 12, and 8 on day 18) and high doses (8, 12, 16, and 20 infectious units on the various days, respectively). The soil was then sprinkled on the bottom of an isolator containing 10 to 20 chickens. High-dose building sand and compost both led to a 100% fatality rate after 2 days, whereas high-dose sandy topsoil led to no deaths. Low-dose compost led to a 50% H5N1 seroconversion rate after 24 days, compared with 33% for building sand and 1% for sandy soil. The authors hypothesize that the sandy soil's acidity inhibits H5N1 spread. They state that about 40% of rice fields in the country have this type of soil and that it is most commonly found in H5N1 outbreak areas. In contrast, "Soil-based compost and building sand, although existing in natural settings, are not the most common substrates found in places where free-ranging poultry are raised in Cambodia," they write.

Tuesday, August 7, 2012

Swine flu concerns: Cuyahoga County Fair keeps pigs away for first time in history #H3N2v

Tuesday, August 7th, 2012

BEREA, Ohio — For the first time, the Cuyahoga County Fair opened its barn doors on Monday without the customary snorts of swine.

The County Fair Board temporarily barred pigs and hogs from the week-long event after two pot-bellied animals infected with swine influenza were discovered last week at the Ohio State Fair.

Fifteen Ohioans have been infected with the recent H3N2v strain of swine flu this summer, the most of eight states that have confirmed cases, according to the Ohio Department of Health. One of the Ohio cases is the result of contact with swine at the state fair, the health department said.

The other 14 are the result of direct contact with swine at the Butler County Fair. Eleven similar cases have been reported in Indiana.

The reports of H3N2v infection are no cause for panic, according to the Centers for Disease Control. But they are cause for caution.

“The swine flu is not any more severe than seasonal flu,” said Michael Jhung, a medical officer with the CDC’s Influenza Division. “There have been no deaths and very few hospitalizations.”

Still, the Cuyahoga County Fair Board decided to be proactive and eliminate any risk.

“We do regret the decision, but we definitely think it is in the best interest,” said Tim Fowler, president of the board. “There are other animals here. There is still plenty to see at the county fair.”

Ohio officials are reaching out across the state to prevent transmission of the virus during county fair season.

Visitors are encouraged to wash hands frequently and avoid eating near livestock, said Ohio Department of Health spokeswoman Tess Pollock.

“There is nothing to be panicked about,” Pollock said. “There is no reason to avoid the fairs.

“Our cases have been fairly mild. Most people are recovering on their own or with the help of anti-virals.”

There are three types of influenza found in swine: H3N2, H1N1 and H1N2. When the respiratory viruses are transmitted to people, they are called “variants” and labeled with a “V.”

People infected with H3N2v or other swine flu variants often have symptoms in common with seasonal influenza, including: fever, sore throat and vomiting.

The CDC estimates between 3,000 and 49,000 people in the U.S. die each year from seasonal influenza. The range in estimates is so wide because common flu deaths are not often reported to the CDC.

Tens of millions of Americans contract the seasonal flu each year and less than 50 have contracted H3N2v since August, 2011, the CDC said.

“We think this is a very rare occurrence to get these variant influenzas, but we want to be completely transparent and get the information out,” Jhung said.

That transparency has led to a saturation of media coverage. But the center does not intend to stir fear.

The goal is to keep lines of communication open between the CDC and the public, Jhung said, adding that the more information the center collects, the better it can combat any severe threat.

Currently, the viruses aren’t easily transmitted from person to person. Only a small number of the nation’s swine flu cases have been transmitted between people, Jhung said, adding that “if it becomes easily transmissible, the danger is that many people in the U.S. will be susceptible.”

USGS National Wildlife Health Center: Avian Influenza Update

August 6, 2012

Seals (H3N8).

Last fall, 162 harbor seals were stranded or died in the New England area of the United States. This week, a team of scientists including from the UGS published findings that suggest the seals had died from a novel H3N8 flu virus. The seal virus is closely related to strains of avian influenza strain commonly seen in wild birds. The seal virus contains mutations that have been shown to enable other flu viruses to infect mammals better and raises concern of the threat posed by this virus to both animals and people. This discovery indicates novel flu strains may emerge from unanticipated sources and has made scientists aware of the necessity to quickly identify new viruses and their potential risks to animals and humans alike.

H5N1 in Poultry
. In the Quang Binh and Hai Duong provinces of Vietnam last month, outbreaks of H5N1 bird flu occurred in four separate villages. Out of 17,642 total birds, 3,560 died from the virus while another 13,082 were culled to prevent the spread of disease. Additional control measures that have been adopted include a quarantine of infected areas, movement control measures, and disinfection of affected areas.