Saturday, December 27, 2008

WHO Update: Ebola haemorrhagic fever in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

26 December 2008 -- The Ministry of Health (MoH) of the Democratic Republic of the Congo declared on 25 December an outbreak of Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Mweka District, Kasai Occidental province based on laboratory results from the Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville (CIRMF) in Gabon. CIRMF confirmed the presence of Ebola virus in 2 samples from 2 of the patients in the outbreak by antigen detection. In addition, laboratory tests conducted by Institut National de Recherches Biologiques (INRB) in Kinshasa, also confirmed the presence of Shigella.

As of 26 December, WHO is aware of 34 suspected cases including 9 deaths (CFR 26%) associated with the ongoing event. Additional samples have been collected and are en route to INRB.

The WHO Country Office, Regional Office and Headquarters are supporting the MoH in Kinshasa and in the field at the location of the outbreak. In addition, the WHO Country Office is supporting the operational costs of the investigation and response teams and has deployed four vehicles to the field. Additional staff, outbreak response equipment and supplies, including Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), are also being sent to the area. An enhanced team of national and international experts is being mobilized to implement control strategies for Ebola haemorrhagic fever and to support outbreak field response in the province.

WHO is working together with laboratory partners to provide comprehensive laboratory services, and to support the MoH in the control and investigation of the outbreak.

WHO is unaware of any reports signaling the international spread of disease and advises against the application of any travel or trade restrictions upon the Democratic Republic of the Congo .

WHO Update: Cholera in Zimbabwe

26 December 2008 -- As of 25 December 2008, a total of 26 497 cases, including 1 518 deaths, have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Zimbabwe. Cases are now being reported from all 10 of the country's provinces. Harare, particularly Budiriro suburb in the south west, accounts for the majority of cases, followed by Beitbridge in Matabeleland South and Mudzi in Mashonaland East. The current outbreak is the largest ever recorded in Zimbabwe and is not yet under control. In fact, the epidemiological week ending 20 December saw over 5 000 new cases - an increase in the number of weekly cases relative to previous weeks - and an increase in deaths outside treatment/health centres.

The overall Case Fatality Rate (CFR) has risen to 5.7% - far above the 1% which is normal in large outbreaks - and in some rural areas it has reached as high as 50%. Mortality outside of healthcare facilities remains very high. This is a clear indication that better case management and access to healthcare is needed - in particular an increased use of oral rehydration therapy with Oral Rehydration Salts in communities very early after onset of the disease.

The outbreak has taken on a subregional dimension with cases being reported from neighboring countries. In South Africa as of 26 December, 1 279 cumulative cases and 12 deaths (CFR of 0.9%) had been recorded, with the bulk of the cases (1 194) in the Limpopo area. Cases have also been reported in Botswana (Palm Tree).

The current situation is closely linked to the lack of safe drinking water, poor sanitation, declining health infrastructure, and reduced numbers of healthcare staff reporting to work. Other current risk factors include the commencement of the rainy season and the movement of people within the country, and possibly across borders, during the Christmas season.

WHO, together with the Ministry of Health and partners from the health and Water and Sanitation clusters, has established a cholera outbreak response coordination unit in order to strengthen the reporting and early detection of cases, improve the response mechanism and access to healthcare and ensure proper case management. WHO has also deployed experts in public health, water and sanitation, logistics and social mobilization. In light of the extent and pace of expansion of the outbreak, reinforcing all control activities across the country is critical.

Given the current dynamic of the outbreak and the context of the collapsed health system, a cholera vaccination is not recommended. Moreover, the use of the internationally available WHO prequalified oral cholera vaccine is not recommended once an outbreak has started due to its 2-dose regimen and the time required to reach protective efficacy, high cost and the heavy logistics associated to its use. The use of the parenteral cholera vaccine has never been recommended by WHO due to its low protective efficacy and the occurrence of severe adverse events.

In controlling the spread of cholera WHO does not recommend any special restrictions to travel or trade to or from affected areas. However, neighboring countries are encouraged to reinforce their active surveillance and preparedness systems. Mass chemoprophylaxis is strongly discouraged, as it has no effect on the spread of cholera, can have adverse effects by increasing antimicrobial resistance and provides a false sense of security.

Mweka: Ebola haemorrhagic fever, patients isolated

27 December 2008 at 10:35:11 a.m.

The transaction isolation of people with Ebola virus began Friday, as the chief doctor of the health zone Mweka, in the province of Kasai-Occidental. It is conducted by the NGO MSF (Doctors without Borders) Belgium reported

The objective is to ensure, according to the same source, better patient care, and especially, to avoid the disease spreading. This operation is conducted on-site Kalwamba, town affected by this epidemic. Note that the statistics indicate so far 9 dead and 33 others suffering from the onset of the disease last November.

Kinshasa: Dr. Muyembe of INRB explains the resurgence of Ebola fever in Mweka

In addition, the director of the National Institute of bio-medical (INRB) in Kinshasa, Dr. Muyembe Tanfumu said the Ebola virus is a danger that remains in the wild. But he assured that even as health workers were trained in all provinces to detect any kind of epidemic. Dr. Muyembe Tanfumu said that the end of 2007 (between the months of November and December) until early 2008, the disease was under control, "But the virus remains in the wild. If a man comes into contact with this virus, it is infected and causes disease in the community. In 1995, the case of Ebola was recorded in Kikwit in Bandundu. This means that the virus exists in Bandundu. It is also Yambuku, in Ecuador, and certainly in other provinces, "he said. To prevent the disease, "said the doctor, we must implement the integrated disease surveillance. Health workers were trained to detect diseases such as measles, polio and tetanus. Once they detect such epidemics, informing the Ministry of Health to ensure that urgent measures are taken, "said the director of the INRB.

Ebola outbreak in DRC, nine dead

As of 26 December 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) said it had been informed of 34 suspected Ebola cases, including 9 deaths (CFR 26%) associated with the current event.

The health authorities of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) announced a return of the Ebola virus, which has already been nine deaths in the province of Kasai, located south of the DRC.

There is to date no treatment against the Ebola virus, which kills 50 to 90% of victims lros phases epidemic.

The Ebola virus has appeared on 27 November 2008 in the Kasai Occidental. Samples of blood and stools were then sent to laboratories based in Gabon and South Africa for analysis. Following the results of these tests taken at Kalwamba, "it is now clear that we are facing an epidemic of viral haemorrhagic fever Ebola," said Congolese Minister of Health, Auguste Mopipi Mukulumanya. As of 26 December 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) said it had been informed of 34 suspected Ebola cases, including 9 deaths (CFR 26%) associated with the current event. Samples have been collected and are en route to the National Institute for Biological Research (INRB) in Kinshasa.

Ebola outbreak in DRC, nine dead . As of 26 December 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) said it had been informed of 34 suspected Ebola cases, including 9 deaths (CFR 26%) associated with the current event.

The Ministry of Health of the Democratic Republic of the Congo said on December 25, an outbreak of Ebola haemorrhagic fever in the district of Mweka, in the province of Kasai Occidental, based on analysis done by the laboratory of the Observatoire International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville (CIRMF) in Gabon. In addition, tests conducted préiminaires by the laboratory of the National Institute of Biological Research (INRB) in Kinshasa, also confirmed the presence of Ebola virus.

For its part, Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) has sent a team of doctors, nurses and logisticians to Kasai Occidental. Specialists from the haemorrhagic fever and epidemiologists are expected in this region.

In September-October 2007, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) had already experienced an outbreak of Ebola in the region of Kasai Occidental.

The Ministry of Health had confirmed that as at 2 October 2007, the tests for fever of Ebola had been positive for 25 cases of 76 suspects identified in the southern province of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC ).

In April-June 2005, a total of 12 cases of Ebola virus infection (1 laboratory-confirmed and 11 have an epidemiological link), including 9 deaths have been reported in Etoumbi and Mbomo in the region of Cuvette West, DRC . Le dernier décès signalé s'était produit le 26 mai. The last reported death occurred on May 26,

New Ebola outbreak in DRC: MSF has set up an isolation unit

KINSHASA - The NGO Doctors Without Borders (MSF) has set up an isolation unit for people suspected of being affected by the Ebola virus in the center of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), said Saturday holder Critic MSF.

. The Congolese Minister of Health, Augustin Mopipi, had said Thursday that a new outbreak of Ebola was reported in late November in this part of the country, killing at least nine deaths and 21 patients identified.

This epidemic has emerged in the town of Kampungu, more than 60 km from Mueka in the province of Kasai Occidental (center), the Minister stated that the analysis of samples confirmed the presence of hemorrhagic fever d 'Ebola.

MSF, which has a team of nine people on the spot, set up a small unit of six isolation beds Kaluamba "near Kampungu, said a spokesman for the NGO, François Dumont.

"Right now, all patients with suspicious symptoms are still isolated and monitored at home. The team has not registered any new patient may be suffering from Ebola," he added.

According to him, the number of patients is still 33 ", since 27 November.

"The number one priority for MSF is to continue the investigations as soon as possible to better understand the epidemic and prevent its spread. Several rumors about the existence of new cases or deaths of suspects have been heard in recent days, reflecting a sense of fear among the population, "added the spokesman.

Maladie très contagieuse, mortelle dans 50 à 90% des cas, Ebola avait déjà frappé l'ex-Zaïre à trois reprises. Highly contagious disease, fatal in 50 to 90% of cases, Ebola had struck the former Zaire on three occasions.

En 1976, le virus a tué près de 500 personnes de part et d'autre de la frontière entre le Soudan et le nord-est du Zaïre, où il avait ressurgi en 1995, faisant 245 morts dans la province du Bandundu (ouest). In 1976, the virus has killed nearly 500 people on both sides of the border between Sudan and north-eastern Zaire, where he resurfaced in 1995, with 245 deaths in the Bandundu province (west).

En 2007, 26 cas confirmés d'Ebola avaient été enregistrés dans la même province du Kasaï occidental, où plusieurs épidémies associées (Ebola, fièvre typhoïde, malaria, dysenterie) ont tué 187 personnes. In 2007, 26 confirmed cases of Ebola had been registered in the province of Kasai Occidental, where several outbreaks associated (Ebola, typhoid fever, malaria, dysentery) killed 187 people.

(©AFP / 27 décembre 2008 09h40) (© AFP / 27 December 2008 09:40)

The outbreak of avian influenza H5N1 in Thai Nguyen

The function has destroyed all of the birds, and resolve all khử same breeding area
This outbreak was avian influenza 2 was detected in Thai Nguyen province in 2008, before, on 28 / 1, in Trại raising chickens belonging to 2 Đán wards Thinh paste, Thai Nguyen City, the italy animals also detected and tests found virus H5N1 avian influenza in chickens product sample patients died, through which has destroyed 4,165 children (from 30 - 75 days old).

Today (27/12), Veterinary Department of Thai Nguyen province, said there have been positive results virus H5N1 avian influenza in samples of poultry products disease death his family's residence Do Van Thu hamlet in progress, in Luong Son, Thai Nguyen city.

The number of over 100 thousand children of his family Thu phenomena have died scattered, the animal has the disease product samples sent test center in veterinary diagnostic and Central positive results with H5N1. No. thousand was 45 days old

PAAFR: Kuwait free of bird flu

12/27/2008 5:05:00 PM
KUWAIT, Dec 27 (KUNA) -- The Public Authority for Agriculture Affairs and Fish Resources reiterated here on Saturday that it has taken a number of measures as part of a contingency plan to prevent and respond to bird flu.
It said in a statement that the measures include increasing the number of survey teams and the early detection of the disease in all regions as well as organizing wide-scale campaigns on the shops selling live birds.
The measures also include monitoring the health status of all birds in commercial poultry farms in particular farms that had been hit by the disease earlier and re-operated at full capacity under the supervision of the Authority.
The statement pointed out that the Authority, in cooperation with the concerned international organizations, particularly the World Organization for Animal Health, are working to determine the status of the global epidemic of bird flu in all the countries of the world in order to make decisions governing the import and export of birds from these countries.
It pointed out that all lab tests that have been conducted on a number of samples of poultry taken from a number of areas in the country have shown they were free of the bird flu virus.

Virus puts barns in quarantine

Saturday, December 27, 2008

NEW ORLEANS — Two connected barns at New Orleans Race Course were quarantined Friday because a 3-year-old filly tested positive for equine herpes.

It may take 10 days to clear other horses trained by Dallas Stewart, who trains the filly, and Neil Howard, said Dr. Tom David, the equine medical director of the Louisiana State Racing Commission.

Stewart has 44 horses and Howard has 27, track spokesman Lenny Vangilder said. Nasal swabs were taken Friday to test all 71, he said. Howard said the horses in his stable all look fine.

Canadian agency warning horse owners about contagious disease imported from US

EDMONTON - The Canadian Food Inspection Agency has a warning for horse owners about a contagious disease affecting their steeds.

Agency officials say farms in Ontario and Alberta received tainted semen last spring from one of three horses on a Kentucky farm infected with contagious equine metritus.

The bacterial disease affects the reproductive organs of horses.

The disease can be treated with antibiotics and there are no human health complications with the disease, says the public agency.

Narita airport operator works out action plan against new influenza


The operator of Narita International Airport has outlined an action plan to interdict the inflow of new types of influenza, sources close to the plan said Saturday. The action plan compiled by Narita International Airport Corp calls for ensuring the safety of passengers and airport officials by stockpiling 10,000 pills of the anti-flu drug Tamiflu and 50,000 flu masks, the sources said. To ensure smooth runway operations continue in the event a new type of flu breaks out at the airport, the action plan proposes training more airport officials tasked with guiding airplanes.

The airport’s basic operations will be maintained even in the event of an outbreak, the action plan says, citing the need to admit passengers on planes flying from infected countries and expedite rescue operations using airplanes such as airlifting of aid goods. The action plan also recommends the airport operator ensure methods to raise money, such as bank borrowings, in response to a possible large revenue decline if a pandemic continues for a long time, the sources said. A new flue is said to take at least one year to run its course after detection

Bird flu: Ban orders in border villages

First Published: 27 Dec 2008 10:10:00 AM IST
Last Updated: 27 Dec 2008 12:52:30 PM IST

BALASORE: Perturbed over illegal transportation of poultry and its products from neighbouring West Bengal, the Balasore district administration has clamped CrPC Section 144 in 72 border villages to prevent illegal import of poultry consignment.

‘‘We have imposed the prohibitory orders to prevent entry of smuggled chickens and eggs into Orissa through Balasore route. The Section 144 will be in force till the end of February,’’ Collector Alekh Chandra Padhiary said Friday adding that the immunisation of the live birds in the district was on.

Within a fortnight over 5,000 chicks, transported illegally, have been seized in the district and destroyed by the police and veterinary officials.

‘‘The chicks were traced from separate vehicles after some people sneaked into the district with the stock from the neighbouring state. The chicks however have been culled,’’ said Chief District Veterinary Officer (CDVO) RK Dutta.

Balasore has 1,74,497 birds, including 21,297 chicks. Of them 15,100 birds have been vaccinated, he added. Prohibitory order has been imposed in border blocks of Bhogarai and Jaleswar in the district following reports of the dreaded bird flu spreading its wings in more areas of WB. The administration has also tightened security at the fishing harbours to prevent smuggling of affected chickens and poultry products to Orissa through sea routes.

The administration is, in fact, leaving no stone unturned from taking preventive measures. While police personnel have been deployed at railway stations and bus stands, elected people’s representatives, teachers, anganwadi workers and forest officials have been asked to stay alert. ‘‘We have identified 15 border routes where temporary check-posts have been set-up and policemen deployed,’’ said a senior police official.

Killer avian flu still spreading in Assam

27 December, 2008 11:41:00

The killer Bird flu virus refuses to die down. It's spreading to new areas in Assam where culling of poultry has been going on since November 27.

According to information, cases of fresh bird flu attack were reported at Manahkuchi of Hajo and Chayani Barduar block in Kamrup (Rural) district, where the disease was first detected.

Some fresh areas to be hit by the virus are Tihu- Barama of Baksa district, Chachaligaon Burachowk village in Nagaon district, Rangamati, Aurpakmoniari Tiniali in Kamrup (Metro) district and Doloigaon Uzanpara in Bongaigaon district.

With seven new locations identified so far, 19 epicentres were stated to be affected by avian flu in seven districts of Assam.

Notably, 150 villages have been declared bird flu-hit, for which 1,720 rapid response teams were deployed. Almost two lakh eggs and 14,000 kg of bird feed have been destroyed since the beginning of culling.

Out of China: December 20-26 epidemic information

December 20-26 epidemic information

One case of cholera cases occurred in Hong Kong

Center for Health Protection today (December 20) are investigating a case of cholera has been confirmed, and to remind the public whether in Hong Kong or traveling abroad, we must take preventive measures, pay attention to good personal, food and environmental hygiene.

The case involved a 11-year-old boy who suffered from diarrhea in the December 9 symptoms, laboratory results showed that his stool samples for Vibrio cholerae Ogawa positive. He is treated in isolation at Princess Margaret Hospital in stable condition. A few days ago the boy's mother was found to be infected with cholera, admitted to Princess Margaret Hospital for isolation and treatment, but recovered and were discharged yesterday.

CHP's investigations revealed that the boy in the November 27-December 8 and their families to visit India. CHP still under investigation. This is the seventh this year, cholera cases were reported in 2007 a total of three cholera cases in 2006 have one, in 2005 5, 2004 and five in 2003 7.

Second, the Chinese mainland: Birds bird flu

Jiangsu Province, there are two poultry farms in the outbreak of animal influenza epidemic. The local government slaughtered nearly 380,000 birds.

(Source: World Organization for Animal Health December 19, 2008)

(more)Third, Indonesia: human infection of highly pathogenic avian influenza

Indonesia's Tangerang Banten province recorded a human infection of bird flu in the death of suspected cases.

(Source: World epidemic intelligence network December 17, 2008)

Fourth, Bangladesh: The avian flu, birds

Dhaka, Bangladesh rajshahi area and the outbreak of bird farms area have bird flu.

(Source: World Organization for Animal Health December 17, 2008)

5, India: The avian flu, birds

India's West Bengal outbreak of avian bird flu.

(Source: World epidemic intelligence network December 17, 2008)

6, Ireland: Mumps

Ireland so far this year there are 1166 mumps cases in the same period last year only 132. Most patients are aged between 15-24 years old.

(Source: Irish Health Protection Surveillance center 2008 years 12 16)

7, Africa: Cholera

1. Democratic Republic of the Congo outbreak of cholera epidemic has infected 25,503 people, of which 515 people died. Including the affected provinces of Maniema, Katanga, North Kivu and South Kivu.

2. Chuo-ku Malawi cholera epidemic broke out, 88 people were infected, of which 5 people were killed.

3. Nigerian state of Niger said Delia cholera epidemic broke out, 11 people were killed.

4. Uganda outbreak of a cholera epidemic in Arua district, 38 people were infected, of which 3 people were killed.

5. Zimbabwe cholera outbreak continued to be affected. From August until December 17 across the country recorded a total of 20,581 cholera cases, of which 1111 people died.

(Source: World epidemic intelligence network December 18, 2008)

Eight Democratic Republic of the Congo: Viral Hemorrhagic Fever

Democratic Republic of the Congo health authorities reported in remote Kasai province 23 Viral hemorrhagic fever suspected cases, of which 9 people were killed. In 2007, the local outbreak of the same region had Ebola haemorrhagic fever outbreak, a total of 167 people died of the disease.

(Source: World epidemic intelligence network December 22, 2008)

9, Egypt: human infection of highly pathogenic avian influenza

Egypt announced a new human infections of H5N1 avian influenza virus of deaths, the victim was a 16-year-old from asyut women, the deceased have had contact with sick and dead poultry. Egypt has so far confirmed 51 bird flu cases, of which 23 people died.

(Source: World epidemic intelligence network December 16, 2008)

10, Europe: imported malaria

European countries report returned from the Gambia found in imported malaria cases. According to Berlin, Germany Travel and Tropical Medical Center, Denmark Aarhus University Hospital, Department of infections and other medical institutions in Europe confirmed that in September this year, since the number of EU countries of passengers returning from the Gambia seized 56 malaria patients.

(Source: World epidemic intelligence network December 22, 2008)

11, Sierra Leone: yellow fever

Sierra Leone's total physicians, Kisito S. Daoh Dr. Abi will be in Dakar, two laboratory-confirmed cases of yellow fever expressed great concern. In August 2003, the country's northern province of the Ministry of Health reported a Tonkolili region confirmed cases of yellow fever and 45 suspected cases. In the following month, a total of eight regions reported 90 cases of yellow fever, of which four cases of laboratory confirmed cases, all occurred in the Tonkolili district, and resulted in 10 deaths.

(Source: World epidemic intelligence network December 22, 2008)

12, Malaysia: Chikungunya fever

Malaysian Ministry of Health in the country this year found a total of about 4,000 suspected Chikungunya cases, Health Minister Datuk Liow Tiong Lai Wednesday (December 17) said: Johor areas identified in the first case of an epidemic will spread to the Negeri Sembilan, Melaka, Perak, Selangor and Kedah latest areas.

(Source: World epidemic intelligence network December 22, 2008)

13, Cambodia: human infection of highly pathogenic avian influenza

December 21, 2008, the Ministry of Health officials said a 19-year-old Cambodian highly pathogenic avian influenza infection in juvenile rehabilitation [in 2005 and 2007 between the highly pathogenic avian influenza has resulted in 7 deaths in the country ]. The boy died due to consumption of poultry disease, in Phnom Penh hospital for a 10-day treatment after December 20 discharged

(Source: World epidemic intelligence network December 21, 2008)

14, West Nile Fever Update

Canada human cases: From October 18, 2008 years, no new cases reported. In 2008 the total incidence of the total number of 36 and 2 cases of asymptomatic infection, of which four cases of travel-related.

(Source: World epidemic intelligence network December 20, 2008)

The characteristics of the avian flu pandemic and its control strategy


Avian influenza is referred to as avian influenza, Newcastle disease, also known as polycythemia, are sticking by the Virus Unit A certain type of influenza virus subtypes caused mainly consisting mainly of poultry infected with an acute, highly contagious diseases.

Since 1878 Italy confirmed the outbreak of disease is by A-type bird flu virus since the disease is currently in Europe, the Americas, Asia, Africa and other places have taken place. In the history of poultry, bird flu is a devastating disease, every time an outbreak of the poultry industry, supplies are causing huge economic losses, especially in recent years in Asia, Europe and the highly pathogenic avian influenza epidemic, not only to the poultry industry brought about a fatal blow, but also a serious threat to human health, has been widespread concern.

1 the characteristics of the avian influenza pandemic virus
1.1 spectroscopy (host range) wide has now been confirmed infected with the avian flu virus around the world can be many types of poultry (such as turkey, chicken, ducks, geese, quails, pigeons, guinea fowl, Shek chickens, ostriches, pheasants, parrots, starlings, etc.), wild (such as swans, terns, ducks, geese, puffins, sea Hatoyama, etc.) and birds (such as swallows, chukars, crows, sparrows, herons, etc. ) and so on, caused or was hidden after the incidence. Poultry chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese under natural conditions is the most susceptible species of birds. In addition, the avian flu virus can also be infected pigs, horses and people as well as whales, ferrets and other animals.
As the virus infected a broad spectrum of avian flu caused more source of infection for avian influenza prevention and control very difficult.

1.2 virus serotypes, and easy to variation based on two types of avian influenza virus-specific surface antigens - hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of different, can be divided into several subtypes. HA now know there are 16 kinds of antigens (H1-H16), NA has nine kinds of antigens (N1-N9), between the two subtypes may constitute a number of levels. Caused by avian influenza virus subtype serum mainly H7N7, H5N1, H5N2, H7N1, H7N3 and so on. Is generally believed that H7, H5 highly pathogenic strains, of course, not all H5 and H7 are vMDV. Although the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus strains of only a small minority, but as a single unit because of its negative chain BNA viruses, and gene structure is from 8 to separate copy of the gene fragment combination, together with numerous virus subtypes, So when different strains infected the same host, they will occur between the gene rearrangement, complementary, mixed and other phenotypic variation genome so that the original low-pathogenic strain may mutate into highly pathogenic strains. Once the virus mutates, the vaccine in the past will fail to control avian influenza considerable difficulties.

(more)1.3 level and faster dissemination of the main avian influenza is generally believed that the main mode of transmission is the level of communication, the principal means of infection of the respiratory and digestive tract. Poultry and poultry infected by respiratory and digestive tract from the virus, through the dust, feed, water, tools Insemination, eggs egg baskets disk, means of transport, such as the spread of bird species, so the spread very fast. Once the chickens are infected, the entire group easily cause the outbreak, and even spread to the nearby chicken farms and rural households. Waterfowl and birds infected with avian flu, the clinical symptoms do not usually show, but can be infected and long-term detoxification, especially migratory birds in the course of a very wide-ranging散毒, once the virus is highly pathogenic strain can be caused by Fulminant epidemic. This shows that water birds and birds in the spread of this disease are important.

1.4-induced factors and the prevalence of the season from the previous occurrence of the avian flu epidemic areas of environmental conditions, the usually warm and humid, rich in water resources, densely populated, highly mobile, disease defense system is weak, poultry primitive conditions, poor sanitation, lack of Science defensive measures, coupled with a variety of mixed poultry rearing and so on, is the spread of the disease constitute a predisposing factor. Avian influenza can occur throughout the year, but the outbreak in the winter and spring festival, especially in autumn, winter and spring at the turn, climate change, big time. Under normal circumstances the summer less morbidity, mostly sporadic, the incidence of symptoms is also lighter chickens.

1.5 avian flu and more complicated with other infectious diseases or secondary avian influenza itself is a kind of immune suppression of the disease, poultry disease incidence is extremely poor and often complicated by or secondary to other infectious diseases, a common complication following the pathogenesis of E. coli and disease, Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, diseases such as mycoplasma.

1.6 incidence rehabilitation easy to relapse, many flocks of chickens in the incidence of recovery or rehabilitation after 1 ~ 2 months and morbidity. Rehabilitation chicken antibody levels decreased gradually over time, the current dropped to a certain level, the body will not be able to protect chickens against bird flu vMDV invasion, at this time if the environment in the presence of avian influenza virus, chicken is still possible to re-infection morbidity. However, the second incidence of the same flock, the symptoms are often lighter, and mortality rates are low.

2 bird flu epidemic clinical manifestations of clinical manifestations because of sick poultry species, age, sex, feeding and management, with or without complications, as well as strain virulence and other conditions vary, which can be divided into low pathogenic avian influenza and highly pathogenic avian influenza.

2.1 low pathogenic avian influenza long incubation period, the incidence compared to ease, the spread of slow, long course, morbidity and mortality is relatively low. Reflected mainly in poultry digestive tract, respiratory tract, reproductive tract as well as the systemic symptoms. Poultry feed intake decreased, the spirit of gloomy, loose feathers chaos, necking,呆立; conjunctival redness, eyes in tears, there are secretions; nasal secretions out there; head swelling, and some crown and meat beard edge congestion due to dark purple, meat beard can thicken, harden, touch it thermal; leg scales have symptoms such as bleeding spots. Respiratory symptoms are usually lighter, poultry and some coughing, respiratory啰音, some difficulty in breathing, mouth伸颈issued screams. Individual poultry diarrhea symptoms, and some water samples from稀便, which has not been completely digested with feed; some from yellow, green or light green稀便. Poultry egg production decrease in the extent and duration of the severity of infection vary. Under normal circumstances, egg production dropped by 30% to 70%, serious production may drop to near level.

At the same time, soft-shell eggs, eggs fade, sand preserved eggs, deformed eggs increased. General in the 7 ~ 10 days, dropped to the lowest level, at this level to stay about two weeks before a slow recovery. Egg drop, picked up the pace with sick birds infected with the virulent strain of strong or weak, feeding and management good or bad, is it timely symptomatic treatment is closely related to such factors. Autopsy shows that the lower end of the trachea, bronchial congestive top tracheal ring, tracheal there exudation; a small portion of the heart can see the size of fat have a tip of the bleeding point; individual can be seen catarrhal enteritis. Adult birds eggs congestive, atrophy, and a large quantity of congestive tubal inflammatory exudation quite common. Atypical for avian flu if it does not take active measures, the virus difficult to be eradicated in the affected areas, the epidemic will gradually spread to the periphery, so that the growing epidemic, but the virus still strong (become highly pathogenic) possible.

2.2 short incubation period of highly pathogenic avian influenza, the incidence urgency, the spread of fast, high morbidity and mortality. Incidence of acute clinical poultry are often no obvious symptoms and sudden death. Longer course, the performance is not to reclaim the body temperature rise and high fever, loss of appetite waste must, laying rate can be seen a sharp decline and a large number of soft-preserved eggs, shell eggs, deformed eggs. Head and neck, facial swelling, purple cockscomb and肉垂or see edema, tears eyes, mouth, nasal mucus containing or outflow, a high degree of difficulty breathing and issued screams, the majority of yellow-green稀便row, a considerable portion had neurological symptoms , manifested as ataxia or paralysis, bleeding legs scaly patches. Breeder of the fertilization rate and hatching rate also dropped significantly. A very short time a large number of deaths. A large group of very high prevalence, morbidity, mortality, mortality rates up to 100%.

Autopsy shows that sick body subcutaneous bleeding. Trachea and throat hyperemia, hemorrhage, mucosal surface of how the volume of sticky secretions or cheese-like structures, pipe-ming site bleeding spot, pulmonary hemorrhage, necrosis, balloon membrane thickening, with cellulose exudative or cheese-like objects. Proventriculus nipples bleeding, there are purulent secretions, proventriculus and esophagus and the stomach muscle at the junction with or bleeding ulcers, muscular stomach hemorrhage cuticle; duodenal and intestinal mucosa have different levels of bleeding; cecal tonsil enlargement , bleeding; rectal mucosa and cloacal hemorrhage. Pericardial thickening, heart冠状沟epicardial fat and bleeding, and sometimes see strips or myocardial necrosis. Liver, spleen can be seen bleeding or necrosis, mucosal surface there are varying degrees of bleeding or bleeding spots. Pancreas bleeding spots and necrotic foci. Kidney enlargement, and urate deposition. Mother poultry and eggs ovarian hemorrhage, and some follicles deformation, rupture, abdominal yolk liquid flows, the formation of yolk peritonitis; tubal hyperemia, hemorrhage, containing a large number of mucus. Rooster testicular swelling, bleeding.

3 bird flu control measures in view of the characteristics of the avian flu epidemic and the serious harm, should take the following comprehensive measures to control the occurrence of avian flu.

3.1 加强检疫
3.1.1 加强国境口岸检疫。 State Customs to deal with the import of poultry, wild, ornamental birds, poultry breeding eggs, semen, poultry, as well as biological products from poultry and related products. Strict quarantine, at the same time respond to the epidemic situation in the exporting country to understand, observe good of the country, to do a good job in import customs clearance, to prevent the epidemic imported abroad.

3.1.2 enhance domestic production, transport links and quarantine. Veterinary and quarantine departments should do a good job in poultry production, distribution, slaughtering and processing plant of railways, highways, docks, ports, airports and other circulation disease outbreak detection and quarantine, if infected poultry or their products should be reported promptly, in order to take corresponding timely and effective measures to control the spread of avian flu and spread.

3.2 poultry farm biosecurity measures should be implemented biosecurity measures to control infectious diseases is the most economical and most effective way, but also a prerequisite for the prevention of all infectious diseases. Broadly speaking its contents, including the introduction of disease pathogens to cut off the channels of all the methods. On integrated prevention and control of avian flu is concerned, should include the following aspects.

3.2.1 poultry farms should be built away from rivers, lakes, where poultry farms around the other livestock and poultry rearing should not avoid the raising of poultry and other livestock and poultry and wild birds contacts, in particular, should be avoided and water birds such as ducks, geese, ducks and other contacts, at the same time to prevent wild birds out.

3.2.2 strict sanitation and disinfection measures, non-production personnel shall not enter the production areas, production personnel should be in strict accordance with the requirements for disinfection before entering the production area, at the same time should be strengthened into the appearance of vehicles, egg baskets and appliances, as well as the surrounding environment disinfection regular sterilization; Furthermore, it should be a regular basis to eradicate harmful insects inside poultry, such as mosquitoes, flies and rodents, etc.; dead birds should be burned or buried, their feces and litter should be carried out innocuous treatment.

3.2.3 poultry farms should insist on self-support and self-Fan all-in all of the rearing methods to enable the vaccination of poultry to obtain more consistent immunity and prevent the cycle of the spread of infectious diseases.

3.2.4 strengthen poultry husbandry management, minimize the occurrence of stress factors and improve the capacity of poultry disease resistance; attention to autumn and winter, spring and winter climate change, prepare warm cold and ventilation work.

3.2.5 strengthen immunization. Vaccine to prevent avian influenza outbreaks and an important measure to control the disease and the key link, the current avian influenza virus known to the different subtypes have no or only a low cross-protective and they would have to get good protection must use the specific serum subtype vaccines. China has developed for different subtypes of avian influenza virus vaccine.

3.3 after the occurrence of bird flu measures in case of suspected bird flu should immediately report to the higher authorities. Once diagnosed, should take immediate and decisive measures to control and fight.

3.3.1 of highly pathogenic avian influenza control and the fight against the measures. Early diagnosis, delineation of affected areas, strict blockade, culling infected poultry, the affected areas are likely to be infected premises to carry out a thorough disinfection of infected areas and threatened areas susceptible to carry out emergency vaccination of poultry.

3.3.2 low pathogenic avian influenza control measures. Confirmed for the low-pathogenic avian flu, should be taken to control the highly pathogenic avian influenza and similar measures, the incidence of avian quarantine blockade or poultry house, strengthen disinfection work to improve the management of poultry rearing, add material in poultry immunoenhancer to enhance the body resistance. Because of the avian flu is still no reliable specific therapy, and therefore the course of the bird flu epidemic are not in favor of treatment, to prevent the spread of the epidemic. Author: Henan University of Science and Technology Co., Ltd. in Luoyang benefits of veterinary drugs

WHO said Zimbabwe cholera death toll of 1518 people

2008-12-27 09:20

By December 27 the World Health Organization Xinhua (WHO) 26, said, according to Zimbabwe informed the Ministry of Health, as of the Christmas date, the country's cholera death toll has increased to 1518 people; and the situation has not yet been controlled.

"Central News Agency" reported that the WHO pointed out that since this summer that the outbreak of cholera in Zimbabwe, "the death rate has risen to 5.7 percent, much higher than the large-scale outbreak of the normal one percent", some rural areas, the fatality rate as high as Five-cheng.

Only on the 25th to the statistics, the number of deaths with a total of 26,497 cases, and in December 20 until the week on an increase of more than 5000 cases, more than the previous week. 10 provinces nationwide have reported cases, particularly in the capital, Harare (Harare) maximum.

WHO pointed out that Zimbabwe's health system has collapsed, did not enter the health care system upon the death of many patients, the current need to strengthen the case management and access to medical care of the pipeline, especially in the district there is an outbreak just increasing the use of oral replacement therapy (ORT).

WHO said that this wave of the epidemic there has been a sub-regional nature of Zimbabwe's neighbors in South Africa 1279 cases, including 12 people were killed; Botswana also has a number of cases.

WHO said that the current cholera outbreak in Zimbabwe from the lack of safe drinking water, unsanitary conditions, the decline of the health infrastructure, such as the reduction of medical care personnel, the advent of the rainy season makes the threat of increased.

Taiwan's Council of Agriculture mistakenly date-sik sent a letter to the outbreak of avian flu OIE correction

EST: 2008-12-26 11:05:23 AM

By December 26 (Bloomberg reporters in Taipei on the 26th Yang Min) The Council of Agriculture today sent a letter to World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) said in Kaohsiung County Road Township farm low-pathogenic H5N2 bird flu outbreak the outbreak of the date should be October 21, rather than first reported November 12, previously due to typing mistakes Shu-sik date.

A few days ago the Council of Agriculture to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) informed of Taiwan's Kaohsiung County Road Township farms for low-pathogenic H5N2 bird flu, in the OIE website ( reported outbreak of avian flu point in time (Start date) to November 12.

National Taiwan University's Department of Veterinary Medicine, Professor Lai Sau-Sui said yesterday, November 12 is the second sampling date, the Council of Agriculture press release is not written "The (97) October 21 in Kaohsiung County Animal Epidemic Prevention reported county road Township has a farm of an unidentified cases, "written by October 21.

Scholars said that in the OIE website can be seen in Germany recently informed of the outbreak, the first outbreak of the second outbreak, the third outbreak of notification to the OIE will not only reported that the last time.

Therefore, the Council of Agriculture today sent a letter to OIE noted that the previous due to typing error, the outbreak of the date (Start date of the outbreak) should be October 21, 2008 instead of November 12.

Council of Agriculture announced December 20 Township Road farms case is low-pathogenic H5N2 avian influenza virus.

October 21 in Kaohsiung County Animal Epidemic Prevention reported Township in Kaohsiung County Road, the farm of an unidentified cases, the Council of Agriculture, Animal Health Research Institute had access disease testing materials. November 12 the Council of Agriculture to build the test results from patients is low-pathogenic H5N2 avian influenza virus.

Friday, December 26, 2008

Burn all hogs infected with ebola, Dagupan doc urges

PIA Press Release

Dagupan City (19 December) -- A CITY official here has suggested the burning of all hogs in a piggery farm in barangay Parian, Manaoag, some 30 kilometers away from here, where animal health authorities recently announced discovery of a strain of the deadly ebola virus.

Councilor Jesus Canto, a physician and former director of the Region 1 Medical Center here, noted that the Lambino farm in that barangay was quarantined to ensure that no infected hogs is brought out to be sold in the local market or fresh stocks are brought in.

"To me, my personal suggestion is for the burning of all hogs in that pig farm to make sure that the virus of ebola reston will not really spread," said Canto, chair on health and sanitation of the city council here.

This is what they are doing in Hong Kong, China, Indonesia and Thailand if they notice that chicken in coops were afflicted with avian or bird flu, he added.

"We want to ensure that the deadly ebola virus is completely eliminated in the province and in the country to prevent our people from panicking," he said.

Canto believes that ebola virus is like the avian flu or the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) that caused a scare in some parts of Asia, including the Philippines, in early 2000.

Canto called on veterinary and sanitary officers in Dagupan to conduct a thorough inspection of all meats being sold in all local public markets to ensure that these are not contaminated by the deadly virus.

He agrees with the findings of the Department of Health that the ebola reston strain of the virus found in pig farms in Pangasinan and also in Bulacan and Nueva Ecija is not the same strain that caused deaths of thousands of human in Africa years ago.

There is still a need however to take all the necessary precautions, even if health authorities have assured that this strain of ebola virus found in the Philippines including in Pangasinan, cannot affect humans.

"That means, our veterinarians and sanitary inspectors should conduct double-time to inspect all meats being sold in the markets and for households to see to it that meats are washed and cooked thoroughly, he said.

For its lack of slaughterhouse, Dagupan is being supplied with meat coming from Mangaldan, only a town away from Manaoag.

Bird flu prevention and control at the scene engaged in exercises

December 25, 2008 Thursday

By (Xinhua correspondent Zhao Hui覃忠武) yesterday morning, Songgang standing animal and plant quarantine嘉康held three birds wholesale Fight highly pathogenic avian influenza prevention and control exercises.

演习开始,工作人员现场模拟该三鸟批发市场内发现一户禽档销售的禽只死亡,死因不明。 Exercises began, staff at the scene simulation of the three birds found in a wholesale market stalls sales of poultry birds died, the cause is unknown. 检疫人员迅速进行采血抽样检测,经初步诊断,疑似高致病性禽流感疫情。 Quarantine officers quickly detecting blood sample, after a preliminary diagnosis, suspected outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza. 随后工作人员立即向总指挥报告疫情,并由总指挥下令将该市场划为疫点,实施封锁,对现有存栏禽只全部实施扑杀处理。 Then immediately to the commander-in-chief of staff to report outbreaks, ordered by the commander-in-chief of the spot market as the implementation of the blockade on the existing stock of all the implementation of culled poultry processing. 同时,对该批发市场进行全面彻底的消毒。 At the same time, the wholesale market for a full and thorough disinfection. 经过检疫人员现场调查,未有疫情发生,最后由总指挥宣布实施疫点解封。 Quarantine officers at the scene after investigation, no outbreak, and finally announced by the commander-in-chief spot reopened.

Fujian bird flu detection capacity of the international advanced level

Xinhua Fuzhou, December 25 (Xinhua Xu Xue-Yi) reporter was informed that on the 24th, Fujian, Inspection and Quarantine Technology Center of bird flu detection capacity of the international advanced level, in order to Fujian to overseas and Hong Kong and Macao health and safety of live birds to provide a strong protection.

近日,福建检验检疫技术中心收到中国合格评定国家认可委员会(CNAS)的有关报告,报告表明该中心顺利通过了由CNAS组织的“国 Recently, Fujian, Inspection and Quarantine Technology Center received from China National Accreditation Board for Conformity Assessment (CNAS) of the report shows that the smooth passage of the center by the CNAS organization the "National 际间禽流感检测能力验证计划”(CNAS T0365),这表明该中心禽流感检测能力已与国际接轨。 Interpersonal ability to verify the detection of bird flu plan "(CNAS T0365), which indicates that the center of avian influenza detection capabilities with international practice.

据了解,此次能力验证共有24个实验室参加,包括来自内地16个省、市和香港、澳门特别行政区的22个实验室,以及来自德国和加拿大的2个实验室,涉及出入境检验检疫实验室、港澳实验室、养殖企业实验室、高校与研究机构实验室和生物技术公司实验室等。 It is understood that the ability to verify a total of 24 laboratories, including 16 from the mainland provinces, municipalities and Hong Kong and Macao Special Administrative Region of 22 laboratories, as well as from Germany and Canada, two laboratories involved in immigration Inspection and Quarantine Laboratory, Hong Kong and Macao laboratory, aquaculture enterprises laboratories, universities and research institutions and biotechnology companies laboratory laboratories.

中国合格评定国家认可委员会是国家认证认可监督管理委员会依法授权的中国唯一从事实验室认可的国家认可机构。 China National Accreditation Board for Conformity Assessment State Certification and Accreditation Administration of China as the sole authorized by law to engage in national Laboratory Accreditation authorized institutions. (完) (END)

The health sector next month in Hong Kong strain of avian flu situation drills

LONDON, according to Hong Kong's "Ming Pao Daily News" reported that to combat avian flu outbreak, the Hong Kong Center for Health Protection will be held in January next year's annual large-scale exercises to drill once the large-scale infectious disease outbreak in Hong Kong, the various departments of the contingency situation. Happens in Hong Kong East Asian Games will be held next year, it will tie in with the Center for Health Protection, held exercises for Health Protection.

Center for Health Protection Emergency Response and Information Branch Director Dr. Chung said that since 2003, after SARS, the SAR Government is aware of infectious disease outbreaks, the need to coordinate the different departments of emergency, it set up the Emergency Response and Information Branch, and in accordance with the relevant units established an infectious disease outbreak contingency level, is divided into the alert, serious, emergency levels, "If the avian flu into a human to human, or the WHO declared the outbreak of an influenza pandemic, some people in Hong Kong illness or death, it will go to the emergency level" .

Chung said that in the alert or serious level, the command responsibility will be handed over to the CHP or Guardian Council is responsible for food, but the "emergency" situation, it will by the Chief Executive, together with all principal officials of the command. He was referring to, once issued an emergency level, the Emergency Response and Information Branch will be responsible for answering inquiries, such as dissemination of information, the center will have special staff to call the SAR government departments to collect data, enter the central system, after finishing stands ready to provide information to the needs of sector, "If we have the electronic maps, can show the population distribution of each street, building to sit to help the police, the evacuation of the public schools, hospitals may also be diverting patients to find the source of the disease."
Every year, the centers will now hold a major exercise is a more permanent Superintendent, a Chief Inspector to co-ordinate each exercise. Chung said that in January next year, the Center will hold an inter-departmental exercise, and the forthcoming East Asian Games held in Hong Kong, they will tie in with the exercises, such as in the Olympic Equestrian Events in Hong Kong during the holding of the exercise, assuming that there are infectious diseases occurred in the Olympic Village.

Centre monitoring Bird Flu in Assam, Bengal

Statesman News Service
NEW DELHI, Dec. 26: The Centre is monitoring the situation in West Bengal and Assam where culling operations are on following outbreak of Avian Influenza. It has sent expert teams and medicines.
According to sources, the flu has spread to new districts in Assam. The fresh areas to be hit by the virus are Tihu- Barama of Baksa district, Chachaligaon Burachowk village in Nagaon district, Rangamati, Aurpakmoniari Tiniali in Kamrup (Metro) district and Doloigaon Uzanpara in Bongaigaon district, the sources said.
Apart from active surveillance and regular monitoring of the affected areas on daily basis following the review of the situation by the health minister, Dr Anbumani Ramadoss, regular culling of birds is being carried out to contain the flu from spreading.
As many as 32,495 birds have been culled in and 210 animal health workers put under chemoprophylaxis in Malda district of West Bengal following the outbreak of Avian Influenza.
Active surveillance is continuing in 0-3 km and 328 health workers have been deployed for active surveillance since the Centre notified the outbreak of the disease in English Bazaar block on 15 December. The state government has adequate stock of ventilators, PPE and Oseltamivir, according to an official release here.
In Assam, 3,235 birds have been culled taking the cumulative number of birds so far culled to 4,08,236. A total of 471 animal health workers, deployed for the culling activity are on chemoprophylaxis. Culling activities have been completed in all blocks except district Chirang while mopping up and sanitisation is underway in other blocks.

Anti-smuggling drive stepped

Obaidul Ghani

The government has strengthened the anti-smuggling drive in the border areas adjoining neighbouring India fearing fresh bird flu outbreak in the country, a top official of the fisheries and livestock ministry said on Thursday.
The stepped-up drive is aimed at stopping entry of any poultry birds from India as the avian flu has already broken out in its two states of Assam and West Bengal, said Syed Ataur Rahman, secretary of the ministry.
‘The government has directed the Bangladesh Rifles to step up anti-smuggling drive in the border areas and also asked the deputy commissioners of 64 districts to reinforce the activities of the respective anti-smuggling committees’, he said.
Meanwhile, the department of livestock services has culled some 945 poultry birds including 128 backyard poultry on December 23 as fresh bird flu virus has been detected in backyard poultry at sadar upazila in Kurigram and a commercial poultry farm in Gaibandha.
The government has also decided to step up surveillance at all the poultry farms across the country to properly monitor infection of deadly viral disease (H5N1) in poultry birds.
The ministry concerned has formed a 16-member monitoring committee headed by fisheries and livestock secretary incorporating the health and family welfare ministry, city corporation, livestock services department and different private sector organisations in it.
The committee will sit in a regular meeting every week and discuss the bird flu situation in the country, the official said.
Besides, a two-member committee will be formed at every union parishad to be headed by its chairman as convenor and member as the member secretary, said the ministry official.
The committee will inform the surveillance team of information on any kind of diseases contaminating the poultry farm in their respective areas.
The government also has a plan to provide training to 2,000 poultry traders at some 300 kitchen markets in the Dhaka city to create awareness among them of handling of chickens.
The convenor of the Bangladesh Poultry Co-ordination Committee, a platform of five poultry-related organisations, Moshiur Rahman, told New Age that although bird flu situation in the country is not so grave as that of India, the government should immediately introduce an action plan to fight bird flu.
He also stressed the action plan must be designed by a co-ordination committee involving all the quarters including the donor agencies.
The prices of poultry and poultry products in the country have already declined due to bird flu scare.
Per kilogram of poultry meat is now selling for Tk 60 while its price was Tk 120 a two weeks back, said the association leader.
The avian flu has been so far detected at 294 poultry farms in 143 upazilas under 47 districts and some 16,47,437 chicks at 554 poultry farms has been culled. The first bird flu case was detected in March last year.

Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Confirmed in DRC

December 25, 2008

MSF teams Teams Caring for Patients and Working to Control Epidemic

Blood samples from patients in the Western Kasai Province in central Democratic Republic of Congo that were sent to laboratories in Gabon have tested positive for Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Thirty -three people suspected of suffering from Ebola, including nine people who have died, have been reported since November 27. Additional blood and stool samples have been taken for testing.

A number of new patients suspected of being infected with the Ebola virus are being followed up. MSF is closely following a patient with fever at a health center in the village of Kaluamba .

An MSF team of nine Ebola specialists from Kinshasa and Brussels is currently working in Western Kasai. Logisticians are building an isolation ward in the village of Kampungu and putting in place all protection measures. The medical team is also providing care to all people suspected of having the disease. There is no cure for Ebola, so supportive and palliative care is provided.

In order to better understand the epidemic and to prevent further propagation of the virus, the MSF team is also identifying people who have been in contact with others infected with the Ebola virus. In case of new deaths, it will be crucial to ensure that bodies are buried properly, in order to prevent contamination.

An additional MSF doctor, a specialist in in hemorrhagic fevers, is departing tomorrow from Brussels and a health promoter will also reinforce the team from Kinshasa . MSF is considering dispatching additional specialists if needed.

NEJM: Melamine and the Global Implications of Food Contamination

by Julie R. Ingelfinger, M.D
Full perspective:
The compound is a component in many plastics, adhesives, glues, laminated products such as plywood, cement, cleansers, fire-retardant paint, and more. But melamine does not always remain where it is placed. For example, melamine in plasticware may be leached from the product by acid and thus can migrate into food, though — at least as measured — not in amounts considered toxic. Fortunately, melamine-containing plasticware becomes discolored or fractures, so it is used less often than it once was.

A greater concern is that melamine is frequently added to crop fertilizer, from which it is absorbed into the soil and then, most likely, into crops themselves, though any uptake has been largely unmeasured. Thus, there is melamine in many products throughout the world, and we do not know what problems it may cause in the future.

A further problem is that melamine food contamination is more pervasive than was originally thought. Since melamine is in animal feed in China, it has now been detected in eggs; it has also been found in wheat gluten and other foods. After the discovery of the melamine contamination of pet food, a detection method involving liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry became widely available and reliably identifies both cyanuric acid and melamine. A number of suspect foods from China tested by the FDA were found to contain melamine (see table), and more are being reported around the world each week. Furthermore, the FDA has found trace levels of melamine in several U.S. infant formulas and, as of the end of November, states that 1 part per million is permitted.

And now, it's suspected to be in our seafood products imported from China. Unfortunately, the FDA does not require seafood to be screened for melamine.,0,5133588.story?track=rss

hat-tip mixin

FDA warns pet owners to avoid Chinese-made chicken treats

FDA warns pet owners to avoid Chinese-made chicken treats

December 25, 2008

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration again is cautioning pet owners about feeding their dogs chicken jerky treats manufactured in China, as the agency continues to receive reports of kidney-related disorders in animals that ate these products.

The FDA has received 151 complaints about dogs falling sick after eating chicken jerky products since September 2007, when the agency issued its warning. Twenty-six of those pets died.

To report suspected cases, go to or call 888-463-6332. — Diane C. Lade

Centre to set up four new labs to test bird flu samples

Coimbatore (PTI): Centre has decided to set up four new laboratories in the country to detect avian influenza virus, a top official in Union Animal Husbandry said on Friday.

"Centre has appointed a United Nations agency for this purpose. The tender process for setting up the labs would be completed by February 2009 and work expected to commence by June 2009," joint secretary of Animal Husbandry and Fisheries Arvind Goshal said at an interactive session on Bird Flu here.

Such samples cannot be tested in ordinary labs. At present the country has only two laboratories, one at Bhopal and the other at Bangalore, to test bird flu samples.

All the laboratories, including one in Namakkal in Tamil Nadu, were likely to become operational by the middle of 2010, Goshal said.

This year saw outbreak of bird flu in 15 districts of West Bengal and two districts in Assam and Tripura in June. The disease re-occurred again in West Bengal and Assam in November-December.

Bird flu spreads to six new areas: 4,16,758 poultry culled so far

Staff reporter
GUWAHATI, Dec 25 – The Central Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries department has confirmed the spread of the virus of the dreaded bird flu to six new areas of the State, highly placed sources in the State Veterinary and Animal Husbandry department here said. Sources told this correspondent here today that the new areas included Chalchaligaon Burhachawk village under Barhampur Development Block of Nagaon District, Bardulipara village under Tihu-Barama Development Block of Baksa District, Monahkuchi village under Hajo Development Block and Rangamati and Ourpakmoniaritiniali villages under Chayani-Barduwar Development Block of Kamrup district.

Moreover, the Central Government has also confirmed the outbreak of the disease among the poultry of Doloigaon Uzanpara village under Dhaligaon Development Block of Bongaigaon District.

While culling of poultry has started in the three km radius area of Chalchaligaon Burhachawk today, similar operations in the three km radius areas of the other newly notified bird flu-affected areas will start from tomorrow, said the sources.

With the new areas, bird flu disease has so far affected the poultry populations of 18 locations of the State since November 27. Culling and dis-infection operations have so far been completed in nine locations of Rajabazar, Patgaon, Sarpara, Bejerajalah, Kathla Katajhar, Khanapara, Kharghuli and Dibrugarh town.

Cleaning and dis-infection operations in Boitamari Kheluwapara and Bajali Sarihasakla are expected to be completed by day after tomorrow, while due to resistance from the local people, culling operations are yet to be completed at Nilibari village of Chirang District, said the sources.

Till yesterday evening, 4,16,758 poultry were killed, while 1,60,317 eggs and 12,553 kgs of poultry feed were destroyed during the anti-bird flu drive in the State, said the sources.

State to take up post-operative surveillance to check bird flu

By Our Reporter


: The Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Department (AHVD) will conduct post-operative surveillance on fowls in areas from three to ten kilometers of Meghalaya's side of Khanapara on December 29 to collect samples to see if bird flu has spread to local poultry from Assam.

According to AHVD Director Dr Daurupathan Khonglah, the exercise is required in view of the recent culling operations conducted by Assam in areas on the inter-state border. "Post-operative surveillance will be done to collect samples from local poultry and check if there is any difference between them and the samples we had collected earlier," he said.

Dr Khonglah said there was no report of bird flu among local poultry and that people could consume them without any fear. He, however, said the ban on import of poultry would continue till further orders.

Mweka: Ebola surfaced in Kampongo, 9 dead and 21 patients identified

Kasai Occidental 25 December 2008 at 14:01:51

It is truly the Ebola epidemic raging in the area of health Kampongo, located over 60 km of Mweka, in Kasai Occidental. The Minister of Health who announced on Thursday. According Mopipi Auguste, a disease of unknown origin broke out in this country since last November, which until then 9 deaths and 21 patients identified. The analysis of samples on-site Kalwamba, confirms the existence of the Ebola haemorrhagic fever, said the minister, reports
According to the Minister of Health, an unexplained phenomenon has led since last November the devastation in the area of health Mweka. National and provincial authorities have mobilized to provide relief to the people of this area of health, particularly in Kalwamba town and its surroundings.
After analyzing the samples Kalwamba, it appears that people once again facing an epidemic of viral haemorrhagic fever Ebola, "said the minister. Like last year, in the same area, the Ebola virus strikes again DRC. Hopefully this time, the Ministry of Health has been faster, continued the Minister.

In the past, the country has been faced with similar situations. But it is the first time that the epidemic affects twice the same area, he acknowledged. Finally, the Minister urged the people of Mweka to follow the recommendations of the teams deployed on the ground and lend a hand.

Ebola epidemic kills scores in DRC

Kinshasa - A deadly Ebola outbreak in the central Democratic Republic of Congo has killed nine and infected 21, the UN-sponsored radio Okapi quoted the health... A 43 year old Congolese patient, center, who has been confirmed to have Ebola hemorrhagic fever, following laboratory tests, is comforted by Medecins Sans Frontieres (Doctors without Borders) nurse Isabel Grovas, left, and Doctor Hilde Declerck, right, i

(photo: AP/WHO, Christopher Black, HO)
Bird flu outbreak occurred five years
中国养殖网 Chinese Culture Network 2008-12-26 10:11:46 2008-12-26 10:11:46

布吉禽畜批发市场举行防控高致病性禽流感应急演练 Phuket poultry wholesale markets to prevent and control highly pathogenic avian influenza, held emergency drills

演练中的一环节———临床诊断及采样 Exercises in one area, clinical diagnosis and sampling ---

本报讯记者余胜容摄影报道:本月23日,龙岗区在布吉禽畜批发市场举行全区范围的防控高致病性禽流感应急演练。 A press photographer Rong Yu reports: on the 23rd of this month, Buji, Longgang District livestock wholesale markets in the region to hold the scope of highly pathogenic avian influenza prevention and control of emergency drills.

记者现场看到,演练规范有序,从接到疫情报告、封锁疫区、扑杀处理、清洗消毒、人员检测、疫源追踪到解除封锁,各个环节环环相扣,体现了龙岗区在防控高致病性禽流感方面取得了可圈可点的效果。 Reporter at the scene saw, drill orderly, from the receipt of epidemic report, the blockade affected areas, culling processing, cleansing and disinfection, personnel detection, focus tracking to the lifting of the blockade, all sectors are closely reflected the Longgang District in the anti - control of highly pathogenic avian influenza has made a subtle effect. 据悉,龙岗区近五年来没有发生过一起禽流感疫情。 It is reported that Longgang District over the past five years did not happen with bird flu.

龙岗区是深圳市家禽养殖主要基地,也是供深港禽类的重要中转站,动物及动物产品调动频繁,禽只日交易量15万多只,且大部分来自外地,禽流感防控任务十分艰巨。 Longgang District, Shenzhen, poultry farming is the main base for the Shenzhen-Hong Kong is also an important transit point for birds, animals and animal products to mobilize frequent poultry on more than 150,000 transactions only, and mostly from the field, the bird flu prevention and control task very difficult. 今年来,龙岗区主要采取实行强制免疫制度、严格落实市场消毒制度、加大疫情监测力度、加强禽只散户管理以及规范禽类屠宰加工管理等五项措施加强禽流感防控工作,确保全区禽流感疫情零发生。 This year, Longgang District main immune system to take a mandatory, and strictly implementing the market disinfection system, and stepping up monitoring of the epidemic, and strengthen poultry retail management, and standardize the management of poultry slaughter and processing of five measures to strengthen bird flu prevention and control work to ensure that the whole region zero occurrence of bird flu.

Fresh bird deaths in Malda

MALDA, Dec. 25: Fresh chicken deaths were reported from Kaliachak II block yesterday even as the animal resources development department started post culling surveillance in English Bazaar and Old Malda Bird Flu affected villages. Villagers buried more than a dozen dead backyard poultry after reporting the deaths to the vets.
The deputy director, ARD, Malda, Mr N K Shit admitted the death reports but said: “We checked the dead birds, there is nothing unusual.” According to him, post culling surveillance will continue for two months. ARD officials will keep vigilance in four phases fortnightly. Villagers will not be allowed to rear chicks in the affected zones for three months.
The deputy director added that the block level committees would prepare the list of beneficiaries for compensation of Rs 500 per family. “The list of beneficiaries will be forwarded to the government for allotment of funds after approval from the committees,” he added.

In Jharkhand, Bengal's ban on poultry

Dec 26, 02:28 pm Dec 26, 02:28 pm

Dumka [Jharkhand].

Dumka affected by the Administration Berdflu poultry brought from West Bengal has put on hold.

Arrangements to combat Berdflu in Bhutan

Dec 26, 12:07 am
(Jalpaiguri): the last days of the state of West Bengal, North Bengal in the area of the spread of information can only Berdflu confederate neighboring Bhutan in the prevention of Berdflu are to be arranged rapidly.
The Royal Bhutan and Bhutan under the Agricultural and Funcoling foot Reguletri Bhutan Authority by the last several months in view of the gate on the prevention of Berdflu campaign is going. Under which India and Bhutan to enter the vehicle and pedestrian traffic, passengers boarded them to spray chemicals on people first Antiberdflu After this is done only in Bhutan is permitted to enter.
Bhutan's order issued by the department concerned in Bhutan under the chicken meat and eggs to take to prohibit the sale and has been. Bhutan to be there every person close to check the goods after they are allowed to enter. Bhutan border with Berdflu so strictly follow the investigation process that is being done, which takes hours are rows of vehicles.
Bhutanese citizens which will have to face the problem.
On the other hand, the visit to Bhutan in India's Bihar province, were residents of Sanjay Gupta and Feroz Mahmood said that the fare of the car when they were going Funcoling Bhutan (Bhutan) to enter the inside of the vehicle by the staff of Bafra people sitting on the body spray was too anti Berdflu.
He appreciated this kind of caution that this campaign would also run the risk of completely Berdflu ends.
In this order Jayganv Association Mrchet Chamber Surendra Prasad said the Chairman of West Bengal and North Bengal Berdflu in the super market but spread in various places, including the sale is still open which should immediately stop local people or in Berdflu a strong fear of the spread of the disease can be. Malda, he said, most places, including chicken Uttrdinajpur related to the sale of food and shopping has been banned. A similar rule should be made here. Mr. Prasad said that in Bhutan Berdflu to avoid measures which are being appreciated and that similar action sought to start here.

Australia surrounded by disease hot spots: Study

Washington, Dec 26 : A new study by researchers at the Australian Biosecurity Cooperative Research Centre for Emerging Infectious Disease (AB-CRC) has shown that global disease hot spots, where new and unknown plagues are most likely to erupt, spread in an arc to Australia's north.

The researchers said that Northern Australia is surrounded by a "ring of fire" where new human and animal plagues are likely to erupt without warning.

"We're in the front line for outbreaks of diseases like SARS, bird flu, Nipah virus, enterovirus 71 and chikungunya which infect both people and animals. Such diseases are most likely to emerge in our region," quoted AB-CRC chief executive Dr Stephen Prowse, as saying.

"The study highlights the vital importance of developing and maintaining effective disease surveillance in our region as often the only defence against a new disease is to spot it early, before it spreads.

"However it also offers scope to anticipate where new plagues could arise," he added.

Dr Peter Daszak and colleagues of the Consortium for Conservation Medicine in New York, a partner of the AB-CRC, conducted the study of global disease hotspots.

"We've developed an earthquake zone map for emerging diseases. It shows which countries are most likely to be on the front line of an emerging pandemic," he said.

"We now have a way to predict the places from where the next HIV, SARS or avian influenza is likely to emerge," he added.

He said a risk map showed Australia was surrounded to the north by countries that were disease hot spots.

"This means Australia needs to be forward thinking in its approach to biosecurity risk.

"New and emerging diseases rarely have any form of treatment and death rates can be quite high as in the case of Nipah virus which kills about half of those who contract it.

"The best course is to stamp out the bushfire before it takes hold and spreads." he added.

Prohibitory orders imposed in Dumka

[map of Dumka:]

Dumka, Dec 26 : Taking preventive steps to check bird flu cases, the sale of imported poultry items, including eggs and poultry food, has been banned in this district.

Official sources said Sub-Divisional Officer K K Das had imposed section 144 CrPC to prevent import of chicken and poultry products from neighbouring West Bengal.

Stern action would be taken against the offenders, the sources said.

The state government, in its direction, had also asked to take preventive measures to check the cases of bird flu.

District animal husbandry officer Vijarprakash Mishra told UNI that so far no case of bird flu was reported in this distric and borders of Masalia and Raneshwar blocks were sealed.

Regional Director of Animal Husbandry Mohammad Saeed said special care was being taken in this region as Sahebganj and Pakur Districts of Dumka commissionery shares its border with West Bengal where bird flu cases were reported.

Vietnam: Ministry issues bird-flu instructions

HA NOI — The Ministry of Health has sent urgent instructions for the strengthening of avian flu prevention to all the 63 provincial and city health departments.

The instructions were intended to strengthen the prevention of the H5N1 virus following regional developments among both birds and humans, the ministry’s Administration of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health (APMEH) director Nguyen Huy Nga said yesterday.

All provinces and cities had been asked to implement epidemic control where avian flu had been found in poultry and strive for the early detection of suspected H5N1 infection to ensure immediate quarantine and control, he said.

The strict control of visitors arriving through border gateways from places where avian flu had occurred was also sought.

Health ministry figures show that five people have been infected with the H5N1 virus this year and all died.

Although the last death was in April, scientists warn that the deadly virus could return.

Viet Nam has diagnosed 106 H5N1-infected patients in 36 provinces and cities since the virus was first reported in December 2003. Of these, 52 died. — VNS