Friday, December 5, 2008

The Strategic role of Animal Quarantine

Kamis, 04/12/2008 17:03 WIB

Indonesia was the archipelagic state that had one million potentials to become developed countries. The number of islands forced Indonesia to continue to carry out the supervision tightly in order to continues to maintain Republic of Indonesia unitary state territorial integrity (NKRI). Of course the existence of the Republic of Indonesia Troops (the TNI) in maintaining the security and cohesiveness of each NKRI territory point absolute was needed. But, the existence of the component that was on duty at the Indonesian territory entrance in preventing all the material circulation being dangerous that threatened the safety and cohesiveness with of the Indonesian community being the same the importance with the TNI existence in maintaining NKRI territorial integrity.


The trade in the animal commodity and his product international also could trigger transboundary disease (the illness that was spread from one country to the other country through the trade route) like the foot-and-mouth disease (PMK), mad cattle (BSE), rinderpest, classical swine fever, and bird flu (AI). This risk that happened if the process of the handling in the trade in the animal commodity was not carried out not exactly. If we did not handle this well then instead of the international trade beneficial for us but precisely that happened the threat for this nation.

Multiplier Effect Illness
Hewan Kita was brought face to face in fact that the animal illness had multiplier effect that was wide. Beginning with the loss economically, the health of the community, and the environment, social the culture, and the position of a country opposite the international community. Indonesia has felt the effect from the handling that was inexact in the bird flu resolution (AI). Apart from the Indonesian economic loss also received the sharp focus from the international community resulting from the handling that was inexact in the bird flu resolution. We could see several countries that suffered the economic loss as a result of the illness originated the animal must among them England spend the fund of Rp 93 trillion resulting from foot and mouth disease (the foot-and-mouth disease/PMK). Resulting from the same illness, during 2001 the Brazilian turn suffered the loss of Rp 2.7 trillion and Argentinan Rp 5.4 trillion during 2005. The superpower's country like the United States each year must menggelontorkan money three until six billion American dollar resulting from the animal illness.

How with Indonesia? We could study many of the cases of the foot-and-mouth disease (PMK) and bird flu. To release Indonesia from PMK was needed by time 100 years and it seems the total loss reached Rp 11 trillion. Now resulting from bird flu Indonesia suffered the loss not less than Rp 4.1 trillion. A figure that was fantastic for a country with the condition for the economy that still unsteadily. That not to mention the loss resulting from the other animal illness that definitely increasingly incriminating the budget of this country. This was very much regretted in the middle of the community that most of his economics was weak and the bad nutrient as well as hunger happened dibeberapa the territory in this country. Definitely this condition will not happen if all these nation components were really serious in overcoming the spreading and the threat of the animal illness. In fact if we could control bird flu and the other animal illness well then we might not menggelontorkan the fund as big as that and definitely will be more beneficial if the fund as big as that could be allocated to for welfare of the Indonesian community. The current for the health of humankind also must receive serious attention. The existence zoonosis (the illness that could be spread from the animal to humankind vice versa) continued to become the world threat.

At this time Indonesia was still occupying the first place of the number of human casualties resulting from bird flu. That not to mention human casualties resulting from zoonosis other like rabies that reached 100 people more each year. If being seen by us the data that was sent by Brown (2004) that for the last two decades 75% new illness (emerging disease) that attacked humankind came from the illness agency that attacked the animal (zoonosis). The available fact forced us must serious handled the originating illness the animal. At this time the threat of the influenza pandemic resulting from unrestrained him bird flu well continued to become the threat for establishment and the existence of humankind in this earth. This condition was certainly very worrying humankind in the world. The world to compete swift with the development of the illness agency from the animal that could threaten the existence of humankind in the world. Moreover at this time several sides that were not responsible for making use of the illness agency from the deadly animal (the example of the Bacillus bacteria anthracis) this as the biological weapon (bioterrorism).

The current size that was produced by this biological weapon again seized attention of the international community.

The effect of the animal illness also evidently touched the social aspect of the culture. The real example was experienced by our nation was in the case of bird flu. We could see the reaction of the Karo community at the time of cluster bird flu in Karo. We could also see the reaction of the Balinese community in responding to the case of bird flu. All of them blew in the social aspect of the culture respectively the area. Now towards the Indonesian position in the eyes of the international community was not that doubted that as a result of being not yet optimal him Indonesia in stifling the spreading of bird flu then Indonesia continued to receive the sharp focus from the international community. Several matters that was explained above was multiplier effect from the animal illness. This effect could be still developing more far and touched to various foundations of the other life if the handling towards the animal illness was not carried out seriously.

The Quarantine Livestock system that delay activity/action of the international trade (international) that was increasingly fast had the potential produced transboundary disease. This could also produce several animal illnesses that exotic in Indonesia. The Avian existence influenza (bird flu) in Indonesia was it was suspected strong as the impact of the negative of the international trade that happened. Learn from this possibility then ought to we tightened and reinforced the guarding against the international trade entrance in Indoensia. This really was realised by developed countries and they really focussed themselves on the supervision action of the area of the border (the entrance) from the entry threat of the illness agency from the animal that could spread the threat for cohesiveness of this country.

So we must reinforce the system of animal quarantine that was assigned in the territory entrance of NKRI. Kalau to be seen by us the available regulation that is No UU 16 in 1992 Tentang Karantina Hewan, Ikan, and plants were stated that one of the aims of animal quarantine was to prevent the entry of the pest and the illness of the quarantine animal from overseas into the Country's Republic of Indonesia territory. As garda foremost in preventing the entry of the illness agency from the animal from the other Country to the NKRI territory then animal quarantine had the very strategic role. The existence of animal quarantine not only was limited prevented the entry of the biological agency being dangerous that was carried by the animal and his product. But, more far was these efforts was aimed to continue to guard all the Indonesian nation components from the agency's biological threat dangerous this.

Saw the available challenge then the available system of animal quarantine must mampu solved the problem kekinian in line with increasingly the speed of the trade between the area and international. Needed by the quarantine system that was strong by being supported by human resources that mumpuni and adequate facilities. Animal quarantine as garda foremost in handling various potential animal commodities brought the illness agency had responsibility that was not easy. Everything of Indonesia had thousands of islands that meaning that the entrance also not a little. This condition was made heavier with various limitations beginning with the insignificance of human resources (human resources), facilities, dan funding.

Saw the role of animal quarantine in preventing the entry of the illness agency from the animal in this country then was not abundant if responsibility that was carried out by animal quarantine was the same the weight with TNI responsibility in maintaining cohesiveness of NKRI. Pendekatan that was done by animal quarantine not only was oriented in the supervision and the inspection to the issuing entrance of the thing (entry-exit point). But, also was oriented in the animal traffic and the animal product intact was based on the available regulation. The security of the NKRI territory from the attack of the illness agency from the animal especially from the other country depended on the achievement of animal quarantine (agricultural quarantine). The noble work at the same time was not easy to be carried out. Needed planning and the strategy that were comprehensive in pacifying the NKRI territory from the threat of the illness agency from the animal.

There were several important points in creating animal quarantine that was strong that is the increase in human resources (human resources) both the quality and the quantity, facilities, and funding, the legislation (the regulation/the legislation), and the international co-operation. The existence of human resources with the adequate quality absolute was needed in creating strong animal quarantine. The increase in the quality of the medical staff (the veterinary surgeon) quarantine and the other component must continue to be carried out. Even so with the existence of facilities and sufficient funding. The rule perkarantinaan also must be relevant with the problem kekinian that was dealt with. The need of the acceleration with the regulation from the other institution including the regional government in order to brings about a system of animal quarantine that could maintain the security of the NKRI territory from the threat of the illness agency from the animal.

Apart from the three matters above then that did not lose important was the work was the same as the international community. The work was the same as the international community enabled us to continue to improve ourselves in order to prepares all the components that were needed in facing the available challenge. Moreover in the increasingly fast international trade era. The four matters above if could be done well then the dream of creating the strong system of animal quarantine and could solve the problem perkarantinaan (the animal) kekinian could be realised. It is hoped!

Drh Agus Jaelani
Kompleks Bandara Sam Ratulangi Manado

Penulis adalah Calon Medik Veteriner Balai Karantina Pertanian Kelas 1 Manado.(msh/msh)

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